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Neurocluster Brain Model

Abstract for scientists

Neurocluster Brain Model analyses the processes in the brain from the point of view of the computer science.
The brain is a massively parallel computing machine which means that different areas of the brain process the information independently from each other.
Neurocluster Brain Model shows how independent massively parallel information processing explains the underlying mechanism of previously unexplainable phenomena such as sleepwalking, dissociative identity disorder (a.k.a. multiple personality disorder), hypnosis, etc.

Abstract for non-scientists

Neurocluster Brain Model is the brain model based on neuroscience which demystifies, reveals and explains all religious and occult phenomena.
Millions of people have experienced various religious and occult phenomena however skeptical scientists deny even the existence of such phenomena.
The denial of the phenomena is not the solution because the denial provides no explanation why so many people claim to have experienced various religious and occult phenomena.
Instead of denial the scientific explanation of underlying mechanisms is needed.
Neurocluster Brain Model provides the scientific explanation of underlying mechanisms of religious and occult phenomena. Neurocluster Brain Model succeeds where other scientific models fail.
For the first time ever all religious experiences (communication with Gods, angels, demons, etc) and psychic powers (mediumship, psychography, telepathy, etc) are revealed and explained in the scientific way.


Brief summary of Neurocluster Brain Model

When a man sees new unknown object for the first time then finite number of neurons in the brain (cluster of neurons) stores information about object's model (how the object looks, how the object moves, how the object behaves, etc).
Information about that object is saved not in the whole brain, but only in the finite “piece of the brain” – the evidence for that are experimental data about brain damage – if the brain is damaged in some local area then brain loses information only about some classes of objects, but not about all objects.
The model of the object is stored inside the “piece of the brain” (cluster of neurons) and this neurocluster acts not only as passive “data file” but also under special conditions (during the dream, during prolonged sensory deprivation, during prolonged fasting, by disturbing the equilibrium of biochemical reactions inside the brain, by using special techniques, etc) this neurocluster can act as “executable file” which can simulate the behavior of stored object for the main personality – this is the underlying mechanism of how religious adepts communicate with spirits/angels/Gods/etc and also the underlying mechanism of other religious and occult phenomena.

Full description (last updated at: Septembe 3, 2016)

The human brain contains billions of neural cells however the man perceives himself as having only one(1) personality, one(1) consciousness, and people who believe in the existence of the soul perceive themselves as having only one(1) soul. Human brain contains billions of neurons however vast majority of people strongly believe that all these billions of neurons contain only one(1) personality, one(1) consciousness, one(1) soul. This “one human body contains one consciousness” model is sufficient to explain the majority of events in casual normal routine life and this is the reason why this model has become de facto accepted model in all human cultures and societies without ever doubting its validity. Medieval scholars were debating the question “how many angels can fit on the head of a pin?” (a.k.a. “how many angels can dance on the head of a pin?”), however nobody has ever raised the question “how many souls can be contained in one human body?” assuming by default that one(1) human body contains only one(1) soul.

However let’s raise a simple question: does this “one human body contains one consciousness” model really can explain all phenomena that man experiences?
The answer is: “one human body contains one consciousness” model actually fails to explain the vast range of phenomena which a man experiences, as it will be shown in this website.
Let’s begin with the simple example.
All religions claim that the soul is immortal and indestructible, the soul is unbreakable, and the soul can not be divided into small pieces.
Some religions (like for example Hinduism) claim that besides humans all living creatures have a soul – all animals, plants, trees do have a soul.
What is the source of these claims about soul properties? All religions claim that their sacred texts are divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired.
Let’s analyze these claims a little bit.
Hinduism claims that every plant has a soul and that the soul is unbreakable and can not be divided into small pieces (Bhagavad-gītā. 2.23-24).

http://vedabase.com/en/bg/2
http://vedabase.net/bg/2/en
2.23: The soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.
2.24: This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, present everywhere, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.
Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. 2.23-24

http://vanisource.org/wiki/Lecture_on_BG_7.1-3_--_Stockholm,_September_10,_1973
<...> Don't think that the plants and trees, they have no life. They are also living entities. We do not accept this theory that the animals have no soul. No. Everyone has got soul. Even the plants, trees, everyone has got soul. They have got different bodies only. It is not that only human being has got the soul, not others. No. Actually if we make analysis what is the symptoms of possessing soul, you will find everywhere. Even in plants' life you will find. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, one of the greatest scientist of the world, he has proved by machine that when you cut the trees or the leaves, they feel sensation, pain, and that is recorded by machine. So everyone has got soul. <...>
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. Lecture on BG 7.1-3. Stockholm, September 10, 1973

However let’s analyze a simple phenomenon like plant propagation from cuttings. Plant cutting (a.k.a. as striking or cloning) is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. The cutting produces new roots, stems, or both, and thus becomes a new plant independent of the parent.
Using plant cutting technique we can divide one plant into many pieces and every such new piece now has become a separate plant. Since every plant has a soul, this means that one soul of the original plant was divided into many souls using such primitive technique as plant cutting.
As we can see from this very simple example, religious knowledge (which is claimed to have been originated from divine and supernatural sources) about soul properties contradicts very simple well known experimental facts like plant propagation from cuttings.

Now let’s go to the animal kingdom. The male paper nautilus (a.k.a. argonaut octopus) possesses a specialized, extended tentacle, called a hectocotylus, where packets of sperm are stored. When a male paper nautilus detects a female, the hectocotylus detaches from the octopus body and swims towards the female under its own power. The hectocotylus inserts its load into the female’s mantle and can remain active, depositing sperm in her even as its owner goes on his way. The male, essentially, has sex in absentia. The first scientists to observe the hectocotylus in action actually misidentified it as a parasitic worm attached to the female paper nautilus.
Let’s raise a simple question: has hectocotylus a separate soul or not? Religious sacred texts fail to answer such question.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hectocotylus
A hectocotylus (plural: hectocotyli) is one of the arms of male cephalopods that is specialized to store and transfer spermatophores to the female. Structurally, hectocotyli are muscular hydrostats. Depending on the species, the male may use it merely as a conduit to the female, or he may wrench it off and present it to the female.
The name hectocotylus was devised by Georges Cuvier, who first found one embedded in the mantle of a female argonaut. Supposing it to be a parasitic worm, Cuvier gave it a generic name. The hectocotyl arm was first described in the biological works of Aristotle; although he knew of its use in mating, he was doubtful that a tentacle could deliver sperm.
Wikipedia

Those were examples about plants and animals, but what about humans? Anyway, there are many people who believe that only humans have souls and these people believe that plants and animals do not have any soul whatsoever.
Let’s raise a simple question: how many souls are contained in conjoined twins (a.k.a. Siamese twins): one or two souls? Religious leaders get very confused when being asked such a simple question because the fact of multiple human souls residing in one physical body contradicts their religious doctrines.
However let’s raise a simple question: how many souls can be contained in one human body? Humanity did not possess tools and technologies which would allow to investigate this question up until the twentieth century. However in the late 1950s things has dramatically changed when neurosurgeons began experiments with the human brain. Some people have epilepsy. Epilepsy is a phenomenon when a small number of neurons in the brain excite themselves via positive feedback neural circuits which leads to the excitation of nearby neurons and this excessive hypersynchronous neuronal activity spreads through large areas of the brain. There are many ways to treat epilepsy however all these treatments share the same common working principle – in order to eliminate the epileptic seizures you need to suppress the excitement of neurons and you need to suppress the spread of the neural excitement through the large areas of the brain. However in some patients all known treatment methods fail and the patient continues to have frequent and strong epileptic seizures. In the late 1950s neurosurgeons decided to try out new drastic method for dealing with such extra hard epilepsy cases. The hypothesis of new treatment method was the following. Human brain consists of two hemispheres which are connected via link which is called corpus callosum. During the epileptic seizure the synchronous neuronal activity originates in one hemisphere and then via corpus callosum it reaches the another hemisphere thus spreading through the whole brain. If we would cut corpus callosum then synchronous neuronal activity which originated in one hemisphere would be stopped from spreading into another hemisphere and this would eliminate epileptic seizure. Several patients with hardest epilepsy cases were chosen to test out the hypothesis and corpus callosum was cut in these patients. Such patients who have their corpus callosum cut are called “split-brain patients”. The hypothesis of neurosurgeons was confirmed to be correct – the cutting of corpus callosum eliminated or greatly reduced epileptic seizures in split-brain patients. However experiments with split-brain patients revealed very interesting side effect of corpus callosum cutting. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. When interconnection between hemispheres (corpus callosum) is cut then both hemispheres begin to act autonomously from each other. For example, when split-brain sits near his wife, the left hand of the patient hugs and fondles the wife, however at the same time the right hand of the patient angrily beats the wife – different hemispheres of the split-brain patient have made different judgments towards the wife and both hemispheres act independently from each other. In other words, the cutting of corpus callosum created two(2) autonomous personalities, which think differently and make different decisions on the same subject and these decisions might be even diametrically opposite. Experiments with split-brain patients revealed that the cutting of corpus callosum produces two(2) autonomous personalities, two(2) autonomous consciousnesses, and for those who believe in the existence of soul – two(2) autonomous souls. Split-brain experiments revealed that one(1) human consciousness can be artificially divided into two(2) consciousnesses by simple cutting of corpus callosum.

When two hemispheres of the (healthy) brain are connected via corpus callosum link then such man is unable to accomplish two different independent tasks with two hands simultaneously because one hemisphere hinders another hemisphere by sending commands via corpus callosum link. For example, if a man takes a pencil into each of two hands and tries to draw two independent pictures with both hands simultaneously (for example a circle with one hand and a square with another hand) – the man will be unable to cope with such task. You can try doing that yourself and see if you will succeed. However when corpus callosum link is cut then after such surgery the man has no troubles to accomplish two different independent tasks with both hands simultaneously – as for example, drawing a circle with one hand and a square with another hand is an easy task for split-brain patient.

Here is the documentary movie which shows experiments with split-brain patient.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGwsAdS9Dc

Severed Corpus Callosum.
Length: 10 minutes

For more movies about split-brain experiments please click here.
For some scientific articles about split-brain experiments please click here.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alien_hand_syndrome
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare neurological disorder that causes hand movement without the person being aware of what is happening or having control over the action. The afflicted person may sometimes reach for objects and manipulate them without wanting to do so, even to the point of having to use the healthy hand to restrain the alien hand.
Alien hand syndrome is best documented in cases where a person has had the two hemispheres of their brain surgically separated, a procedure sometimes used to relieve the symptoms of extreme cases of epilepsy. It also occurs in some cases after brain surgery, stroke, infection, tumor, aneurysm and specific degenerative brain conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Other areas of the brain that are associated with alien hand syndrome are the frontal, occipital and parietal lobes.
The first known case described in the medical literature appeared in a detailed case report published in German in 1908 by the preeminent German neuro-psychiatrist, Kurt Goldstein. In this paper, Goldstein described a right-handed woman who had suffered a stroke affecting her left side from which she had partially recovered by the time she was seen. However, her left arm seemed as though it belonged to another person and performed actions that appeared to occur independent of her will.
The patient complained of a feeling of "strangeness" in relationship to the goal-directed movements of the left hand and insisted that "someone else" was moving the left hand, and that she was not moving it herself. Goldstein reported that, as a result of this report, "she was regarded at first as a paranoiac." When the left hand grasped an object, she could not voluntarily release it. The somatic sensibility of the left side was reported to be impaired, especially with aspects of sensation having to do with the orienting of the limb. Some spontaneous movements were noted to occur involving the left hand, such as wiping the face or rubbing the eyes; but these were relatively infrequent. Only with significant effort was she able to perform simple movements with the left arm in response to spoken command, but these movements were performed slowly and often incompletely even if these same movements had been involuntarily performed with relative ease before while in the abnormal 'alien' control mode.
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In most cases, classic alien-hand signs derive from damage to the medial frontal cortex, accompanying damage to the corpus callosum. In these patients the main cause of damage is unilateral or bilateral infarction of cortex in the territory supplied by the anterior cerebral artery or associated arteries. Oxygenated blood is supplied by the anterior cerebral artery to most medial portions of the frontal lobes and to the anterior two-thirds of the corpus callosum, and infarction may consequently result in damage to multiple adjacent locations in the brain in the supplied territory. As the medial frontal lobe damage is often linked to lesions of the corpus callosum, frontal variant cases may also present with callosal form signs. Cases of damage restricted to the callosum however, tend not to show frontal alien-hand signs.
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Damage to the corpus callosum can give rise to "purposeful" actions in the sufferer's non-dominant hand (an individual who is left-hemisphere-dominant will experience the left hand becoming alien, and the right hand will turn alien in the person with right-hemisphere dominance).
<...>
One patient with the "frontal" form of alien hand who would reach out to grasp onto different objects (e.g., door handles) as he was walking was given a cane to hold in the alien hand while walking, even though he really did not need a cane for its usual purpose of assisting with balance and facilitating ambulation. With the cane firmly in the grasp of the alien hand, it would generally not release the grasp and drop the cane in order to reach out to grasp onto a different object.
Wikipedia

In year 1981 Roger Wolcott Sperry was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work with split-brain research. Roger Sperry's split-brain experiments showed that the man can have independent thoughts in the right side of the brain that control man’s behavior yet remain outside of man’s awareness.
Roger Sperry's coworker Michael Gazzaniga who worked with Sperry on the first split-brain experiments, continued to work further with split-brain patients. Michael Gazzaniga came to the conclusion that there are not two, but actually hundreds of independent, specialized modules of thinking in man’s brain that all compete for control of the man’s behavior. According to Michael Gazzaniga one of those thinking modules tries to explain all of our behavior, even though it is only in control occasionally. Michael Gazzaniga has named this module as the “interpreter module”. Thomas R. Blakeslee concluded that this “interpreter module” is actually the physical basis of what people normally call the “self”. Thomas R. Blakeslee renamed “interpreter module” into “self module”. According to Thomas R. Blakeslee most behavior of the man is controlled by other modules of the mind to which the self module has no access.
Physicist Michio Kaku in his book “The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind” wrote that “MIT professor Marvin Minsky, one of the founding fathers of artificial intelligence, told me that the mind is more like a “society of minds,” with different submodules, each trying to compete with the others.”.
In Neurocluster Brain Model we use the term “main personality” instead of Gazzaniga’s “interpreter module” and Blakeslee’s “self module”.

In psychology and psychiatry one of the most heavily used terms is “consciousness”.
Please read the detailed article which explains why “the term “consciousness” does not meet the scientific criteria”.
It is important to note however that pseudoscientific term “consciousness” is so deeply rooted into society that this makes almost impossible to avoid it when discussing the functioning of the brain. In Neurocluster Brain Model we use pseudoscientific term “consciousness” only for legacy reasons in order to simplify comprehension of material for the reader – sometimes a little inaccuracy saves a ton of explanation.

The most fundamental existential question is “who am I?” – the same question rephrased in more scientific way is “what is the definition of “I”?”. If we answer this question incorrectly then all our subsequent actions in our life are meaningless.

http://www.scienceofidentity.org/who-are-you/introduction
“Who am I?”
Maybe you’ve never even asked yourself this question. You might think you already know who you are. Unfortunately, however, it’s likely that you don’t know who you are at all. And if you don’t know your real identity, you’re in trouble. You’ll spend your life in a kind of dream state – you’ll falsely identify yourself as something or someone you aren’t.
Then, on the basis of this false identification, you’ll determine the goals of your life and the purpose of your existence. You use these goals to gauge whether you are making “progress” in life, whether you are a “success.” And you are aided and abetted in this assumed purpose by a complex network of relationships with other dreamers. <...>
Knowing who you are is a practical necessity. The question “Who am I?” is not a philosophical football meant to be kicked around coffeehouses by pseudo-intellectuals. It’s a real-life question. Nothing is more important and more relevant than to know who you are.
An excerpt from “Who Are You? Discovering Your Real Identity” by Chris Butler (Jagad Guru Siddhaswarupananda Paramahamsa).
Science of Identity Foundation

Let's do simple thought experiment. Suppose I am sitting in the room and I cut off my one leg and throw it out the window, and now the question – where I am left: inside the room or outside the window? The answer is obvious – I am in the room and not outside the window, which means that the location of “I” is not in the leg which was cut off. Now let’s cut off the arm and throw it out the window, and now the question – where I am left: inside the room or outside the window? The answer is obvious – I am in the room and not outside the window, which means that the location of “I” is not in the arm which was cut off. In the same way we can cut off other parts of the body and throw them out the window as well, we can replace all internal organs with artificial ones (artificial heart, etc) throwing original organs out the window, and every time when we cut off some piece of my body and throw these pieces out the window – “I” still remains in the room and not outside the window. Some people think that “I” is located in the neurons of the brain. Well, theoretically we can replace a single original natural neuron by artificial neuron which has exactly the same functionality as the original natural neuron – in that case “I” will remain unchanged. Then we can replace the second original natural neuron by artificial neuron, then we can replace the third neuron, the fourth neuron, and so on – even when all neurons in the brain will be replaced by artificial neurons – the “I” will remain unchanged. So what is “I”, where “I” is located? Neurocluster Brain Model provides the answer to this question.
Neurocluster Brain Model defines “I” (a.k.a. “spirit”, “soul”, “consciousness”, etc) as the software which runs on neural-network-hardware (i.e. on neurons of the brain).
“I” is not the material neurons themselves however “I” is the software which runs on neural-network-hardware. “I” can be cloned/copied or ported to another hardware and can successfully run on another hardware even when the first hardware is physically destroyed – exactly in the same way as the computer program can be cloned/copied or ported to another hardware. Thus, periodical transferring of “I-software” to another new hardware provides unlimited existence time (a.k.a. “immortality”). At the current moment the cloning/copying or porting of whole “I-software” to another hardware is not technically feasible, however this might become feasible in future. However microscopic pieces of “I” can be made “immortal” even today. We will explain more detailed.
When “I” is defined as software that means that “I-object” is a divisible object, it can be divided into many composing parts, just exactly in the same way as the large software program can be decomposed into smaller submodules/subroutines/functions/etc.
For many practical applications in order to achieve the needed goal you do not need to copy the whole program code, it is enough to take and to copy just a small submodule/subroutine/function taken from that huge software project.
To demonstrate the general principle of copying ability it is enough to demonstrate that some small piece of software can be copied.
Let’s apply this to the human brain.
Suppose man X spends hundreds of hours thinking and trying to find solution to some problem Z and finally he succeeds. The solution which he has found in the form of information is saved into his brain neurons and this solution becomes the part of that man’s “I” (because by definition “I” is the software/information). This man X can tell and teach another man Y how to solve problem Z, the man X can copy the problem solving algorithm into another man’s Y brain. After the problem solving algorithm was copied into another man’s Y brain, some teeny-tiny portion of man X “I” was copied into man’s Y brain.
This simple example demonstrates the principle that some small teeny-tiny piece of “I-software” can be copied into another hardware.
To clarify the idea let’s illustrate with the concrete example. Newton discovered the formula “F=m*a” which had become the part of Newton’s “I” and later this formula “F=m*a” was copied into the brains (hardware) of other people and this formula traveling from one brain (hardware) into another brain has become “immortal”, in other words, the tiny little piece of Newton’s “I” has become immortal and lives until today.
The definition of “I” as a software which runs on neural-network-hardware is completely different from 1) the views of materialists and 2) the views of religious adepts.
Materialists consider themselves as the stack of material atoms, materialists consider themselves as DNA molecule, and materialists see their “immortality” via the replication of their own DNA molecule, thus materialists desperately desire to produce material children naively believing that production of children supposedly extends the existence of their own “I” – while not the exactly the true “I”, but at least a somewhat corrupted copy of “I” (corrupted copy of DNA molecule). It is interesting to note that biological children of the parents-scientists/discoverers usually do not carry on the ideas/experience of their parents-scientists/discoverers – the newly discovered scientific ideas, as a rule, are carried on only by strangers in blood, which means that biological children do not help at all to “immortalize” the ideas of their parents-scientists/discoverers.
Religious adepts consider that “I” is some kind of a “cloudlet” which can detach from physical body and which can float/travel through space, which can travel to paradise/hell or reincarnate into some other living creature/being, religious adepts are strongly convinced that observance of rules written in the sacred scriptures will somehow help “I-cloudlet” to reach the better existence conditions in post-mortal existence – the falseness of such claims will be explained in details in the text below which describes Neurocluster Brain Model.
It is important to note that Neurocluster Brain Model describes all processes in the brain from the information processing point of view. All objects/terms used in the dictionary of Neurocluster Brain Model (like “main personality”, “egregor”, “dream characters”, etc) actually denote information objects which have more of less equivalents in computer science like “software”, “program”, “routine”, “subroutine”, “function”, “procedure”, etc.
And this raises an interesting technical question: Neurocluster Brain Model is a materialistic model or not? The answer depends on how you answer the question: information is matter or not? Information cannot exist without a material carrier, however information itself is not a matter.

In psychiatry there is one rare disorder called „multiple personality disorder“. „Multiple personality disorder“ is the disorder when several (2, 3, 5, 10, etc) different personalities “live” in one(1) human body and these different personalities switch between each other unpredictably in very similar way like TV channels are switched on TV. For example, a man with a name “John” who is a musician sits still in a chair and suddenly a phone rings (trigger stimulus) and in a moment the personality of the man switches into another personality with a name “Thomas” who is a sculptor. John knows nothing about Thomas, and Thomas knows nothing about John. After some random time Thomas unexpectedly switches back to John. And these personalities switch back and forth the same way like TV channels are switched on TV.
The main difference of „multiple personality disorder“ patient from “split-brain” patient is the following. In the case of „multiple personality disorder“ only one(1) personality is available at one moment of time, while in the case of “split-brain” patient both two(2) personalities are available simultaneously.
„Multiple personality disorder“ is among the most controversial of the dissociative disorders in psychiatry, and among the most controversial disorders found in the DSM-5. Psychiatry has no clear consensus regarding neither the diagnosis of „multiple personality disorder“ nor its treatment. In year 1994 American Psychiatric Association renamed „multiple personality disorder“ into improper name „dissociative identity disorder (DID)” which clearly reveals that official psychiatry has no clue whatsoever about underlying mechanism of „multiple personality disorder“. The only thing which psychiatry admits is the existence of patients in which multiple personalities switch back and forth like TV channels, however psychiatry has neither the model of „multiple personality disorder“ nor the understanding of underlying mechanisms of „multiple personality disorder“.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative_identity_disorder
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder (MPD), is a mental disorder on the dissociative spectrum characterized by the appearance of at least two distinct and relatively enduring identities or dissociated personality states that alternately show in a person's behavior, accompanied by memory impairment for important information not explained by ordinary forgetfulness. These symptoms are not accounted for by substance abuse, seizures, other medical conditions, nor by imaginative play in children. Diagnosis is often difficult as there is considerable comorbidity with other mental disorders. Malingering should be considered if there is possible financial or forensic gain, as well as factitious disorder if help-seeking behavior is prominent.
DID is one of the most controversial psychiatric disorders, with no clear consensus on diagnostic criteria or treatment. Research on treatment efficacy has been concerned primarily with clinical approaches and case studies. Dissociative symptoms range from common lapses in attention, becoming distracted by something else, and daydreaming, to pathological dissociative disorders. No systematic, empirically supported definition of "dissociation" exists. It is not the same as schizophrenia.
Although neither epidemiological surveys nor longitudinal studies have been conducted, it is generally believed that DID rarely resolves spontaneously. Symptoms are said to vary over time. In general, the prognosis is poor, especially for those with comorbid disorders. There are few systematic data on the prevalence of DID. The International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation states that the prevalence is between 1 and 3% in the general population, and between 1 and 5% in inpatient groups in Europe and North America. DID is diagnosed more frequently in North America than in the rest of the world, and is diagnosed three to nine times more often in females than in males. The prevalence of DID diagnoses increased greatly in the latter half of the 20th century, along with the number of identities (often referred to as "alters") claimed by patients (increasing from an average of two or three to approximately 16). DID is also controversial within the legal system, where it has been used as a rarely successful form of the insanity defense. The 1990s showed a parallel increase in the number of court cases involving the diagnosis.
Wikipedia

http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/erlendsson_01_jun_03.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/...aspects_of_the_inner_self
Introduction
The validity of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) as a category of illness has been questioned by many. Some feel it is only caused by hypnotic induction and not seen in real life. It is well known in the literature; one of the famous stories that describe it is ‘The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’ by Robert Louis Stevenson that has been made famous by the Hollywood film industry. It is a 19th century thriller about a man who unlocks his evil alter ego and pays a terrible price for it.
MPD is often confused with schizophrenia, even to this day. The name schizophrenia comes from the idea of split personality. In the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) MPD is described as a condition where two or more distinct personalities take full control of the behaviour and when there is some inability to recall events occurring in the different states. The exclusion criteria include states that are induced by substances such as alcohol and other organic causes, though some feel that these should rather be seen as a spectrum of the illness. In DSM-IV, the USA classification, the definition is similar but the illness has been given another name: Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).

Epidemiology
Lifetime prevalence of Dissociative Disorders is about 11% and the prevalence of MPD has been estimated to be about 6%. The illness is seven times more frequent in women than men. Only about 0.1% of the population will present to the psychiatric services at any point in time with MPD. The notion of the illness is neglected by the majority of clinicians who rarely make the diagnosis especially in the United Kingdom. When looked for on acute psychiatric wards as many as 6% of patients fulfil the criteria for MPD. At least 40% of those that are given the diagnosis of MPD have previously been given the diagnosis of Schizophrenia. Any one with the diagnosis of Schizophrenia that does not have blunted affect, a thought disorder and the empty deterioration of schizophrenia should be considered having MPD. The average number of first rank Schneiderian symptoms is 4.5, which is about the same as in Schizophrenia.
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Features of Different Personalities
Many of the writers on MPD are uncomfortable with the notion of many personalities in one body. The number of personalities or ‘alters’ varies from 2 to above 100, with the mean about 15. The clinical presentation of these different personalities can be very complex. The different ‘states’ can claim to have their own name, their behaviour may be different and their mood states can be different. They may have markedly different mannerisms and facial expressions. They may also dress differently and talk with a different accent. Some have different sexual identity and orientation.
There are also many physical attributes that can change such as dominant handedness, visual acuity and even sensitivity to allergens and degree of endocrine disturbance including hypothyroidism and diabetes.
One of the many unusual aspects of MPD is the frequency of headaches (79%) and extra sensory perception (ESP). These include telepathy, telekinesis, clairvoyance, seeing ghosts, poltergeist contacts and out of body experiences. These are the main non-specific clinical features of MPD.
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Personalities or Possession?
When alter personalities are asked about whom they believe they are, they say they are: children (86%), helping spirits (84%), demons (29%), another living person (28%), dead relatives (21%) and a person with opposite sex (63%). The two largest case series that have looked into this are by F W Putnam (1986) who described 100 cases and C A Ross (1989) who described 236 cases. Even though the majority of alters claim not to belong to the individual the prevailing opinion is that these are in fact parts of the individual.
DSM-IV defines Possession Trance as a single or episodic alteration in the state of consciousness characterized by the replacement of customary sense of personal identity by a new identity. This is attributed to the influence of a spirit, power, deity, or other person. Later in the definition DID (MPD) is excluded. However this is difficult - the definition is based on a belief attributing the state to a spirit etc. and this is very common in MPD.
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Ross, who has written the most comprehensive textbook on MPD (1997), has occasionally used spirit release methods like many others in this field. However, he prefers to the treat alters the that claim to be external like any other parts of the personality. He helps them to deal with any relevant traumatic material and aims for full integration with the rest of the person.
‘Multiple Personality Disorder - Demons and Angels or Archetypal aspects of the inner self’. 2003
Dr Haraldur Erlendsson

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3711025
Abstract
The clinical syndrome of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is an unusual dissociative condition that has been poorly characterized. In an attempt to better delineate the clinical phenomenology of MPD, 100 recent cases were collected on a 386-item questionnaire completed by clinicians involved in the treatment of MPD patients. This study documents the existence of a clinical syndrome characterized by a core of depressive and dissociative symptoms and a childhood history of significant trauma, primarily child abuse.
The clinical phenomenology of multiple personality disorder: review of 100 recent cases.
Putnam FW, Guroff JJ, Silberman EK, Barban L, Post RM. J Clin Psychiatry. 1986 Jun; 47(6):285-93.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2766193
Abstract
The authors collected a series of 236 cases of multiple personality (MPD) reported to them by 203 psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and other health care professionals. MPD patients experienced extensive sexual (79.2%) and physical (74.9%) abuse as children. They had been in the health care system for an average of 6.7 years before being diagnosed with MPD and had an average of 15.7 personalities at the time of reporting. The most common alter personalities were a child personality (86.0%), a personality of a different age (84.5%), a protector personality (84.0%), and a persecutor personality (84.0%). Patients MPD are highly suicidal with 72% attempting suicide and 2.1% being successful. The patients frequently received diagnoses for other mental disorders. The most common previous diagnoses were for affective disorders (63.7%), personality disorders (57.4%), anxiety disorders (44.3%), and schizophrenia (40.8%).
Multiple personality disorder: an analysis of 236 cases.
Ross CA1, Norton GR, Wozney K. Can J Psychiatry. 1989 Jun; 34(5):413-8.

To read about the history of multiple personality disorder (a.k.a. dissociative identity disorder) please click here.

Usually a man is completely unaware that he has multiple personality disorder, however it can be diagnosed with simple basic set of questions.
Diagnostic criteria for multiple personality disorder are the following:
(a shortened paraphrase of Dissociative Identity Disorder Diagnostic Criteria 300.14 (F44.81) from “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th Edition - DSM-5”, published in 2013 by American Psychiatric Publishing)
1) Missing time and gaps in the memory.
Are there any episodes of “missing time” in your life? Are there any gaps in your memory? As for example, maybe you do not remember what you were doing yesterday from 3:00 PM till 8:00 PM, or maybe you do not remember what happened today from 8:00 AM till 12:00 PM, etc.
2) Strange things among your belongings.
Are there any episodes of you discovering the evidence of your actions and tasks that you do not recollect doing?
As for example, maybe you sometimes find new things among your belongings that you do not remember buying? As for example, maybe you have found an ashtray with smoked cigarettes in your home when you are completely sure that you are non-smoker, or maybe you have found leather clothes in your closet which perfectly fits your body however you are completely sure that you hate leather clothes, etc.
Are there any episodes of you finding (perplexing) writings, drawings, or notes among your belongings that you cannot remember doing?
Are there any episodes of you discovering injuries “coming to” in the midst of doing something?
3) “Teleportation”.
Are there any episodes of your “teleportation”? Are there any episodes when you have suddenly found yourself at work, in a nightclub, at the beach, or somewhere at home (e.g., in the closet, on a bed or sofa, in the corner) with no memory of how you came to be there?
4) Voices in the head.
Are there any episodes of you hearing voices inside your head that tell you to do things or comment on things that you are doing?
It is important to note that all these symptoms of multiple personality disorder are not attributable to psychotropic substances (alcohol, narcotics, etc) or another medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures). These signs and symptoms may be observed by others or reported by the individual.

What is the underlying mechanism of „multiple personality disorder“? It is very simple. Some part (zone) of the brain (“piece” of the brain, cluster of neurons, i.e. neurocluster) “declares independence” from the rest of the brain and starts to “think” autonomously.
If several such autonomous neuroclusters exist then two scenarios are possible:
1) autonomous neuroclusters compete with each other for which one will take over the control of the body. In this scenario only one personality is available at one time for the outside observer. If another autonomous neurocluster takes over the control of the body, then personality changes in a man in similar way like TV channel is switched on TV. This switching of personalities can be back and forth – at one time one neurocluster takes over the control, at another time another neurocluster takes over the control.
Here again two scenarios are possible:
a) if autonomous neurocluster has friendly symbiotic attitude towards rest of the brain, then we have „multiple personality disorder“ or holy spirit possession (angel/etc);
b) if autonomous neurocluster has hostile attitude towards rest of the brain, then we have demonic/satanic/black spirit possession – and such cases are very common – lunatic asylums are full of such patients.
2) autonomous neuroclusters act simultaneously dividing the brain into several spheres of influence – in such case we get independent subject/personality (“homunculus”) which lives in the human brain and is able to generate and send sounds and pictures to the main personality. In such scenario man is absolutely sure that he is communicating with spirits/extraterrestrial beings/angels/demons or even with the God or voice of the universe. Human brain fMRI scans show that when man hears hallucinatory sounds and/or sees hallucinatory images – at that time brain zones which are responsible for hearing/seeing are active – the man really hears and sees them.

For some movies about “multiple personality disorder” please click here.
For some movies about “demonic possession” please click here.

The existence of autonomous neuroclusters can be clearly seen in split-brain patients. The most important and interesting result from split-brain experiments is when different information (text or picture) is provided into different hemispheres simultaneously. The technical accomplishment is very easy. The right eye provides information for the left hemisphere and the left eye provides information for the right hemisphere. If different pictures are provided into different eyes then different hemispheres get different information. The split-brain patient can easily tell what the left hemisphere has seen because the language production zone (Broca's area) is located in the left hemisphere. However when information is provided for the right hemisphere then the split-brain patient is unable to tell what he has seen, the split-brain patient claims that he saw nothing. The most important and interesting part of the experiment is when a sheet of paper is given to the split-brain patient and he is asked that left hand (i.e. right hemisphere) would draw a picture of what it has seen. And the left hand draws on the paper the object which was seen by the right hemisphere. During the drawing process the left hemisphere tries to recognize the object in drawn picture – sometimes it recognizes drawn object quite easily however sometimes it fails to recognize the object in the picture. The right hemisphere does not have the access to the information which is at the disposal of the left hemisphere and the left hemisphere does not have the access to the information which is at the disposal of the right hemisphere.
However the right hemisphere can transfer information into the left hemisphere via picture drawn on the paper, i.e. via exterior and not via internal link in the brain (because corpus callosum is cut). I.e. the right hemisphere can communicate with the left hemisphere only as two separate independent personalities via external outside link. For more details please see the documentary movie below “Severed Corpus callosum” starting from 2 minutes 51 seconds. During the experiment the word “phone” was shown to the right hemisphere and the right hemisphere has drawn the image of phone on the sheet of paper which clearly shows that the right hemisphere is able to convert words into images.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGwsAdS9Dc#t=2m51s

Severed Corpus Callosum (starting from 2 minutes 51 seconds).
Length: 10 minutes

The main personality which resides inside the left hemisphere does not know what will be drawn on paper by the right hemisphere. The main personality observes and sees that information for the first time, the main personality has never seen this information before.
This experiment provides a very good model for explaining psychography (a.k.a. automatic writing) phenomenon during which independent autonomic neurocluster takes over the hand control and writes a text on the sheet of paper while the main personality does not know what will be written on the sheet of paper. Exactly the same underlying mechanism is in channeling (a.k.a. mediumship) when autonomic neurocluster takes over the voice control while the main personality does not know which words will be told during channeling séance.
Experiments with split-brain patients clearly show that the brain is made up of a constellation of independent or semi-independent agents, and these agents, these processes can carry on a vast number of activities outside of the main personality’s conscious awareness.

Another way to prove the existence of autonomic neuroclusters is the analysis of features of the dream characters. During the dreaming process the man sees various characters (people/animals/etc) in the dream scenario. Let’s ask a simple question – do these characters (which are seen in the dream) have their own consciousness or not?
Let’s suppose the answer this question is “no, dream characters do not have their own consciousness”. Such answer raises a simple question – if the dream characters do not have their own consciousness, then how can it be that these dream characters can communicate with you, talk with you, ask questions to you, answer your questions, etc – how the dream characters can accomplish such tasks if they do not have their own consciousness? If the dream characters do not have their own consciousness, then this leads to the conclusion that agent (dream character) does not need to have the consciousness in order to appear like it has consciousness.
Now let’s analyze another scenario. Suppose the answer is “yes, dream characters do have their own consciousness”. Such answer raises a simple question – who is the physical carrier of dream character’s consciousness? The most common answer which people give to such question is “non-material spirits hover beyond the material world and these spirits come into the dream where they meet other non-material spirits and these spirits communicate between with each other.” However let’s analyze the following situation. Suppose you go to sleep and you see Susane in your dream. However while you are sleeping and while you are seeing Susane in your dream, the real physical Susane is located in the next room where she is cooking food, reading book, etc. If Susane would be asleep while you are sleeping, then the explanation would be that your spirit and Susane’s spirit have met beyond the material world. However problem lays in the fact that Susane is not asleep, Susane is awake and Susane’s spirit is inside the physical body of Susane and Susane is busy with some action. If you are seeing Susane in the dream, then how can the spirit of Susane be in two different places simultaneously – in your dream and in the next room? These are very simple questions which lead to insolvable paradoxes.
However all these paradoxes can be easily solved using neurocluster brain model. Susane which you see in your dream is not the Susane’s spirit, but instead a neurocluster into which the model of Susane is written and stored. This neurocluster simulates all the behavior of Susane: how Susane moves, how Susane talks, etc. The more accurate and the more detailed the model of Susane is, the more realistic the dream scenario becomes.
The characters (which are seen/met in the dream) have different intelligence level – one characters can speak fluently, while other characters are incoherent, and third characters are unable to stammer out a single word. Why there is such difference in the intelligence level? The underlying mechanism is very simple.
If the neurocluster which models character X contains low number of neurons then character X will have low intelligence level.
If the neurocluster which models character X contains big number of neurons then character X will have high intelligence level.
The good analogy for the model of object X stored into neurocluster is the computer file. However such neurocluster is not a simple computer data file, this neurocluster also can act as executable (EXE) computer program file.
During the dreaming process the models of various characters become “alive” autonomic personalities which are able to act independently from the main personality.
Under some conditions the character which is stored inside the neurocluster can become able to communicate with the man’s main personality while the man is awake.
If the neurocluster is located nearby the hearing/vision areas inside the brain, and neural links reach hearing/vision areas, then such neurocluster may begin “tele-radio” translation for the man’s main personality and the main personality with begin to hear the voice of “God/angels/cosmos/etc” and see images of “God/angels/cosmos/etc”.
If the neurocluster is located nearby the motor areas inside the brain, then such neurocluster can take over the control of the man’s body – and this is the classical scenario when “demon possessed” man can attack nearby people and/or accomplish some other actions with the man’s body. As a rule, the neurocluster which contains the model of the “demon” has very limited and relatively small number of neurons at its possession and this is the reason why the intelligence level of such “demons” is very low – the “demon” can only induce shaking convulsions or physically attack somebody nearby, however maintaining meaningful highly intelligent conversation with such “demon” is not possible at all. During sleepwalking (somnambulism) when autonomic neurocluster takes over control of man’s body usually the intelligence level of autonomic neurocluster is also very low and this is the reason why it is not possible to carry meaningful highly intelligent conversation with the sleepwalker.
If the neurocluster is located nearby the areas of the brain which control the mouth and voice, and neural links reach voice control areas, then such autonomic neurocluster can take over the man’s voice and begin talking via man’s mouth – this phenomena is known under the name of “channeling”.
If the neurocluster has huge number of neurons at his disposal and if the neurocluster has full access to the control of the man’s body, then this manifests itself as „multiple personality disorder“.

The neurocluster which most of the time has the access to actuators (i.e. neurocluster which most of the time acts upon an environment using actuators) is called the “main personality”.
Neuroclusters which have no access at all or which have only short duration access to actuators – such neuroclusters are called “autonomous neuroclusters”.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligent_agent
In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is rational). Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. They may be very simple or very complex: a reflex machine such as a thermostat is an intelligent agent, as is a human being, as is a community of human beings working together towards a goal.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actuator
An actuator is a component of machines that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system.
An actuator requires a control signal and source of energy. The control signal is relatively low energy and may be electric voltage or current, pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or even human power. The supplied main energy source may be electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. When the control signal is received, the actuator responds by converting the energy into mechanical motion.
An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control system), a human, or any other input.
Wikipedia

The typical classic example of autonomic neurocluster is so called “archangel Gabriel” which dictated the text of Quran to Muhammad.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad
The Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe that it represents the words of God revealed to Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Spirit_(Islam)
<...> Archangel Gabriel (referred to as Jibral, Jibrīl, Jibrael, 'Džibril, Jabrilæ or Jibrail (جبريل, جبرائيل, [dʒibræːʔiːl], [dʒibrɛ̈ʔiːl], or [dʒibriːl]) in Islam), the archangel who, according to the Qur'an, was assigned by God to reveal the Qur'an to the prophet Muhammad. He is also the angel who delivered the Annunciation to Mary.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel
According to the Quran, God sent the Quran to the Islamic prophet Muhammad through His angel Gabriel (Jibra'il) and sent a message to most prophets, if not all, revealing their obligations. Gabriel is named numerous times in the Quran (2:97 and 66:4 for example). In 2:97, the Quran expressly narrates: Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is who hath revealed (this scripture) to thy heart by God's leave, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers.
Gabriel makes a famous appearance in the Hadith of Gabriel, where he questions Muhammad on the core tenets of Islam.
In Muslim tradition, Gabriel is considered one of the primary archangels. Exegesis narrates that Muhammad saw Gabriel in his full angelic splendor only twice, the first being when he received his first revelation. Muslims also revere Gabriel for a number of historical events predating the first revelation. Muslims believe that Gabriel was the angel who informed Zachariah of John's birth as well as Mary of the future birth of Jesus and that Gabriel was one of three angels who had earlier informed Abraham of the birth of Isaac. These events of Zachariah and Mary can be found also in the Quran, mentioned in surah Maryam, below are some ayat from the Quran referring to the archangel Gabriel (interpretation of the meanings).
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hearing_Voices_Movement
The Hearing Voices Movement is the name used by organizations and individuals advocating the "hearing voices approach", an alternative way of understanding the experience of those people who "hear voices". In the medical professional literature, ‘voices’ are most often referred to as auditory hallucinations or ‘verbal’ hallucinations. The movement uses the term ‘voices’, which it feels is a more accurate and 'user-friendly' term.
The movement was instigated by Marius Romme, Sandra Escher and Patsy Hage in 1987. It challenges the notion that to hear voices is necessarily a characteristic of mental illness. Instead it regards hearing voices as a meaningful and understandable, although unusual, human variation. It therefore rejects the stigma and pathologisation of hearing voices and advocates human rights, social justice and support for people who hear voices that is empowering and recovery focused. The movement thus challenges the medical model of mental illness, specifically the validity of the schizophrenia construct.
<...>
Organisation
The Hearing Voices Movement was established in 1987 by Romme and Escher, both from the Netherlands, with the formation of Stichting Weerklank (Foundation Resonance), a peer led support organisation for people who hear voices. In 1988, the Hearing Voices Network was established in England with the active support of Romme. Since then, networks have been established in 35 countries.
<...>
Hearing Voices Groups
Hearing Voices Groups are based on an ethos of self-help, mutual respect and empathy. They provide a safe space for people to share their experiences and to support one another. They are peer support groups, involving social support and belonging, not necessarily therapy or treatment. Groups offer an opportunity for people to accept and live with their experiences in a way that helps them regain some power over their lives. There are hundreds of hearing voices groups and networks across the world. In 2014 there were more than 180 groups in the UK. These include groups for young people, people in prison, women and people from Black and Minority Ethnic communities.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hearing_Voices_Network
Hearing Voices Networks, closely related to the Hearing Voices Movement, are peer-focused national organisations for people who hear voices (commonly referred in western culture as auditory hallucinations) and supporting family members, activists and mental health practitioners. Members may or may not have a psychiatric diagnosis. Networks promote an alternative approach, where voices are not necessarily seen as signs of mental illness. Networks regard hearing voices as a meaningful and understandable, although unusual, human variation. In themselves voices are not seen as the problem. Rather it is the relationship the person has with their voices that is regarded as the main issue.
<...>
Hearing Voices Groups
The development of peer support groups for voice-hearers, known as “hearing voices groups” (HVGs), are an essential part of the work of Hearing Voices Networks throughout the world. For instance there are over 180 groups in England, 60 in Australia and growing numbers of groups in the USA.
Wikipedia

https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/a-to-z/h/hearing-voices
Hearing voices
It is estimated that between 5% and 28% of the general population hears voices that other people do not.
<...>
Most people have had at least one experience of hearing a voice when there was no one around them. One study found that only around 25% of persons who hear voices also have a psychotic disorder. While children below the age of 12 have reported hearing voices, in 75% of cases, the voices stopped by the age of 13. Where the voices persist through to adolescence and adulthood, it usually is the case that there is an underlying mental health issue.
Mental Health Foundation

http://www.independent.co.uk/....heads-are-being-encouraged-to-talk-back-10001499.html
The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
By William Lee Adams
Independent. 25 January 2015

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/....voices-in-your-head-not-necessarily-sign-of-serious-mental-illness/article25414537/
How hearing voices, long assumed a sign of mental illness, can be a part of the human experience
By Wency Leung
The Globe and Mail. July 12, 2015

Several neuroclusters can share the access to the same neural resources (visual/auditory/motor/etc system, memory banks, etc) and here several scenarios are possible:
1) the sharing of neural resources can be simultaneous (i.e. when several neuroclusters can access the same neural resources at the same time);
or
2) the particular neural resource can be used mutually exclusively (utilizing semaphore principle) by several neuroclusters.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semaphore_(programming)
In computer science, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type that is used for controlling access, by multiple processes, to a common resource in a concurrent system such as a multiprogramming operating system.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutual_exclusion
In computer science, mutual exclusion is a property of concurrency control, which is instituted for the purpose of preventing race conditions; it is the requirement that one thread of execution never enter its critical section at the same time that another, concurrent thread of execution enters its own critical section.
The requirement of mutual exclusion was first identified and solved by Edsger W. Dijkstra in his seminal 1965 paper titled Solution of a problem in concurrent programming control, which is credited as the first topic in the study of concurrent algorithms.
Wikipedia

Also different neuroclusters have different degrees of access to neural resources.
As for example, some neuroclusters (i.e. personalities) can have access to visual system, while other neuroclusters (i.e. personalities) can be blind.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468893
Abstract
We present the case of a patient having dissociative identity disorder (DID) who-after 15 years of misdiagnosed cortical blindness--step-by-step regained sight during psychotherapeutic treatment. At first only a few personality states regained vision whereas others remained blind. This could be confirmed by electrophysiological measurement, in which visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were absent in the blind personality states but were normal and stable in the seeing states. A switch between these states could happen within seconds. We assume a top-down modulation of activity in the primary visual pathway as a neural basis of such psychogenic blindness, possibly at the level of the thalamus. VEPs therefore do not allow separating psychogenic blindness from organic disruption of the visual pathway. In summary, psychogenic blindness seems to suppress visual information at an early neural stage.
Sight and blindness in the same person: Gating in the visual system. Strasburger H1, Waldvogel B2. Psych J. 2015 Dec;4(4):178-85. doi: 10.1002/pchj.109. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/neuroskeptic/...V35Tz9J96Uk
A new paper reports the fascinating and perplexing case of a woman who reported that she was host to multiple personalities – some of whom were completely blind. The paper is called "Sight and blindness in the same person: gating in the visual system", authored by German psychologists Hans Strasburger and Bruno Waldvogel.<...>
Her eyes were not damaged in the accident; instead, doctors attributed her loss of vision to brain damage: cortical blindness.
Years later, B. T. entered psychotherapy for her DID. In therapy, she manifested ten different identities or personalities, which differed in “name, reported age, gender, attitudes, voice, gesture, facial expressions” and other characteristics. Such a multiplicity of selves is not uncommon in DID patients.
But in B. T.’s fourth year in therapy, something unexpected happened: she regained her sight – but only some of the time. Some of B. T.’s personalities became able to see, while others remained blind. Strasburger and Waldvogel write that “Sighted and blind states could alternate within seconds.”
Now, by itself, this would be an odd psychological case study, but rather difficult to interpret, because the whole case would revolve around B. T.’s self-reports of her blindness. For instance, one interpretation would be that B. T. was malingering, for instance – that she had “made up” the blindness, and possibly also the extra personalities.
But Strasburger and Waldvogel present some remarkable evidence that seems to exclude malingering as a possibility: they show that when B. T. was “blind”, her brain actually didn’t respond to visual stimuli. To do this, they used EEG to measure visual evoked potentials (VEPs). A VEP is an electrical response generated in the visual cortex of the brain in response to stimulation. The absence of VEPs is suggestive of blindness.
Strasburger and Waldvogel show that B. T.’s brain generates normal VEPs when she’s in a “sighted” personality state, but that when she’s “blind”, there is a total absence of VEPs:
BT_VEP1
In the “sighted” condition, a sharp downwards peak is visible at approximately 100 milliseconds after the stimulus is presented. But the same stimulus evokes no detectable response in the “blind” condition.
This is really quite something.
Multiple Personalities, Blindness and the Brain
By Neuroskeptic. November 20, 2015. Discover Magazine Blogs.

Jessica Lavigne who claims that she has MPD (multiple personality disorder) explained MPD using good analogy:
”Your body is a car, and you are always one driving, and there is someone in the passenger’s seat, someone in the back seat, and people in the boot (a.k.a. car trunk). That’s the way I always think of it. And how co-conscious you are means where are you in the car. If you are in the front seat you can see everything. If you are in the back seat you can see a bit. And if you are in the boot you can see nothing. And that’s how I would describe “co-consciousness”. Alters may be sat in different places and they can see certain amount of things that you do and then sometimes they can take over the wheel. And that’s what I definitely call “switching”.”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVLDWpQ__9U#t=12m19s&end=13m30s

(Original) DID Self-Made Documentary. MultiplicityAndMe
Length: 1 minute (starting from 12 minutes 19 seconds, ending 13 minutes 30 seconds). Total length: 31 minutes

The opponents of Neurocluster Brain Model often use the argument that “there is no place in the brain where you could hide a second personality, not to mention more personalities”.
Let's look more closely – what is the volume of the brain which is needed to accommodate one personality? We will remind that the parrots and other birds can talk, despite the fact that the volume of their brain is very small. The volume of the human brain can easily accommodate many “talking parrots”, i.e. personalities (a.k.a. “voices in my head”).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Talking_birds
Talking birds

African grey parrot
List of amazon parrots
Blue-fronted amazon
Barred parakeet
Blue-and-yellow macaw
Budgerigar
Cockatiel
Cockatiel (aviculture)
Common hill myna
Common myna
Common raven
Common starling
Corvus
Galah
Hyacinth macaw
Little corella
Long-billed corella
Lutino cockatiel
Red-and-green macaw
Scarlet macaw
Palm cockatoo
Monk parakeet
Parrotlet
Pied cockatiel
Psittacus
Red-shouldered macaw
Red-tailed black cockatoo
Rose-ringed parakeet
Salmon-crested cockatoo
Sulphur-crested cockatoo
Sun parakeet
Timneh parrot
Tui (bird)
Western corella
White-faced cockatiel
White-necked raven
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_(parrot)
Alex (1976 – September 6, 2007) was an African grey parrot and the subject of a thirty-year (1977–2007) experiment by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg, initially at the University of Arizona and later at Harvard University and Brandeis University. When Alex was about one year old, Pepperberg bought him at a pet shop. The name "Alex" was an acronym for avian language experiment, or avian learning experiment.
<…>
Accomplishments
Pepperberg did not claim that Alex could use "language", instead saying that he used a two-way communications code. Listing Alex's accomplishments in 1999, Pepperberg said he could identify 50 different objects and recognize quantities up to six; that he could distinguish seven colors and five shapes, and understand the concepts of "bigger", "smaller", "same", and "different", and that he was learning "over" and "under". Alex passed increasingly difficult tests measuring whether humans have achieved Piaget's Substage 6 object permanence. Alex showed surprise and anger when confronted with a nonexistent object or one different from what he had been led to believe was hidden during the tests.
Alex had a vocabulary of over 100 words, but was exceptional in that he appeared to have understanding of what he said. For example, when Alex was shown an object and was asked about its shape, color, or material, he could label it correctly. He could describe a key as a key no matter what its size or color, and could determine how the key was different from others. Looking at a mirror, he said "what color", and learned "grey" after being told "grey" six times. This either made him the first and only non-human animal to have ever asked an existential question (apes who have been trained to use sign-language have so far failed to ever ask a single question), or his parroting the question phrase was very luckily situated.
Alex was said to have understood the turn-taking of communication and sometimes the syntax used in language. He called an apple a "banerry" (pronounced as rhyming with some pronunciations of "canary"), which a linguist friend of Pepperberg's thought to be a combination of "banana" and "cherry", two fruits he was more familiar with.
Alex could add, to a limited extent, correctly giving the number of similar objects on a tray. Pepperberg said that if he could not count, the data could be interpreted as his being able to estimate quickly and accurately the number of something, better than humans can. When he was tired of being tested, he would say "Wanna go back", meaning he wanted to go back to his cage, and in general, he would request where he wanted to be taken by saying "Wanna go...", protest if he was taken to a different place, and sit quietly when taken to his preferred spot. He was not trained to say where he wanted to go, but picked it up from being asked where he'd like to be taken.
If the researcher displayed irritation, Alex tried to defuse it with the phrase, "I'm sorry." If he said "Wanna banana", but was offered a nut instead, he stared in silence, asked for the banana again, or took the nut and threw it at the researcher or otherwise displayed annoyance, before requesting the item again. When asked questions in the context of research testing, he gave the correct answer approximately 80 percent of the time.
Once, Alex was given several different colored blocks (two red, three blue, and four green—similar to the picture above). Pepperberg asked him, "What color three?" expecting him to say blue. However, as Alex had been asked this question before, he seemed to have become bored. He answered "five!" This kept occurring until Pepperberg said "Fine, what color five?" Alex replied "none". This was said to suggest that parrots, like children, get bored. Sometimes, Alex answered the questions incorrectly, despite knowing the correct answer.
Preliminary research also seems to indicate that Alex could carry over the concept of four blue balls of wool on a tray to four notes from a piano. Pepperberg was also training him to recognize "4" as "four". Alex also showed some comprehension of personal pronouns; he used different language when referring to himself or others, indicating a concept of "I" and "you".
In July of 2005, Pepperberg reported that Alex understood the concept of zero. If asked the difference between two objects, he also answered that; but if there was no difference between the objects, he said "none", which meant that he understood the concept of nothing or zero. In July 2006, Pepperberg discovered that Alex's perception of optical illusions was similar to human perception.
Pepperberg was training Alex to recognize English phonemes, in the hope that he would conceptually relate an English written word with the spoken word. He could identify sounds made by two-letter combinations such as SH and OR.
Wikipedia

It is interesting to note that a lot of pseudoscientists claim that high level of intelligence (or the possession of “consciousness”) is needed in order to possess abstraction capabilities, however it is very easy to disprove this claim.
We will remind that all organisms are able to distinguish “food” from “non-food”. However “food” and “non-food” are abstract objects. And that means that all organisms have abstraction capabilities.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstraction
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the product of this process—a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category.
Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction, a type (e.g., a 'ball') is more abstract than its tokens (e.g., 'that leather soccer ball').
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_and_concrete
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
<…>
Examples of abstract and concrete objects
Abstract Concrete
Tennis A tennis match
Redness The red coloring of an apple
Five Five cars
Wikipedia

Some religious adepts claim that the personality/soul/spirit/consciousness/etc it is located not in the brain. As a proof to this claim they provide the following example of a man who supposedly lives without a brain.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)61127-1/fulltext
A 44-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of mild left leg weakness. At the age of 6 months, he had undergone a ventriculoatrial shunt, because of postnatal hydrocephalus of unknown cause. When he was 14 years old, he developed ataxia and paresis of the left leg, which resolved entirely after shunt revision. His neurological development and medical history were otherwise normal. He was a married father of two children, and worked as a civil servant. On neuropsychological testing, he proved to have an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 75: his verbal IQ was 84, and his performance IQ 70. CT showed severe dilatation of the lateral ventricles (figure); MRI revealed massive enlargement of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles, a very thin cortical mantle and a posterior fossa cyst. We diagnosed a non-communicating hydrocephalus, with probable stenosis of Magendie's foramen (figure). The leg weakness improved partly after neuroendoscopic ventriculocisternostomy, but soon recurred; however, after a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted, the findings on neurological examination became normal within a few weeks. The findings on neuropsychological testing and CT did not change.

Massive ventricular enlargement, in a patient with normal social functioning
Figure
Massive ventricular enlargement, in a patient with normal social functioning
(A) CT; (B, C) T1-weighted MRI, with gadolinium contrast; (D) T2-weighted MRI. LV=lateral ventricle. III=third ventricle. IV=fourth ventricle. Arrow=Magendie's foramen. The posterior fossa cyst is outlined in (D).
Brain of a white-collar worker
By Dr Lionel Feuillet, MD, Henry Dufour, PhD, Jean Pelletier, PhD. The Lancet. Volume 370, No. 9583, p262, 21 July 2007

Let’s examine more closely this particular case. Here you will need the knowledge of neuroanatomy. The term “ventricles of the brain” means “cavities in the brain which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventricular_system
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
Wikipedia

Every man has the cavities in his brain, just in this particular case the cavities are bigger than usual. In other words, the man does have the brain, however the cavities in his brain are bigger than usual. This means that the volume of his brain is less than usual. The article says that this man lives a normal ordinary life; he has become a husband and father of two children, which is supposedly miraculous.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)61127-1/fulltext
He was a married father of two children, and worked as a civil servant.
Brain of a white-collar worker
By Dr Lionel Feuillet, MD, Henry Dufour, PhD, Jean Pelletier, PhD. The Lancet. Volume 370, No. 9583, p262, 21 July 2007

However nobody raises the elementary question: what volume of the brain is needed for so-called “normal life”; and the question in general – what is “normal”? We will remind that the chipmunk can also easily “become a husband and father of kids”, despite the fact that the volume of chipmunk’s brain is very small, much smaller than that of the man, described in the article. In essence, the “normal life” is actually the ability “to eat, sleep, mate and defend” – and for these purposes a small volume of the brain is more than enough.
Please read more in the article “What is “normal”? The meaning of “normal””.
As it was shown in the above examples, for a “normal life” (i.e. for the ability “to eat, sleep, mate and defend” and even to talk) a small volume of the brain is more than enough. I.e. for one personality a small volume of the brain is more than enough. The larger the brain, the greater the number of personalities (autonomous neuroclusters) it can contain.

In awake state when the man for the first time sees/meets some new object then automatically some area/zone of the brain (cluster of neurons) saves the model representation of that object. That cluster of neurons saves all information about that object: how that object looks, how that object moves, etc. When a man goes to sleep then in the dream state the main personality sees and interacts with the objects/characters which are painted/simulated by the corresponding neuroclusters in which the models of these objects/characters are stored.
When a man awakens from a dream then there is very short moment when the main personality sees images from both worlds: 1) from dream simulator and 2) from real physical world (from sensory organs); and the images from both of these worlds overlap and are seen both simultaneously. Usually this moment lasts very shortly however under special conditions it may last longer and also this time can be prolonged by using special exercises and techniques. During this intermediate state when images from both of worlds overlap the man can easily see various spirits/angels/ghosts/etc. When a man fully awakens then all these spirits/angels/ghosts/etc dissipate and become invisible. However under certain conditions the images from dream simulator can be painted over the images from real physical world even when a man is fully awaken. The main personality has no tools whatsoever to distinguish simulated virtual objects from the real world objects, for the main personality object coming from dream simulator appears to be very real. Objects painted by dream simulator are three-dimensional thus when a fully awaken man sees such object (like spirit/angel/ghost/etc) this object has three-dimensional shape and is placed into three-dimensional environment (room/field/etc), the man can even walk around that three-dimensional virtual object and he can inspect this virtual object from all sides just in the same way as with regular physical objects. That virtual object/character is seen only by that man alone in whose brain that object/character is generated, other people cannot see that virtual object/character even if they are located physically nearby the man who sees these virtual objects. The reason is very simple – that object/character exists only in the brain of that man. Due to the ignorance of the brain physiology people naively believe that such virtual characters are “spiritual beings” that live in “spiritual world”. When the main personality sees/hears/feels “spiritual beings/objects” – the underlying mechanism is very simple – at that time one part of the brain acts as an observer (main personality is observing) and other parts of the brain act as “painters” which paint “spiritual beings/objects” in the view of the main personality. The seeing of “spiritual beings/objects” sometimes is also called as “remote viewing”, “third eye”, etc.

When a man who sees “spiritual beings” tells other people about his “spiritual visions” then two scenarios are possible:
1) if “spiritual visions” of that man match the dogmas of the prevailing religion of that geographical region then such man is declared as saint and religious adepts begin praising and worshiping such man;
2) if “spiritual visions” of that man contradict the dogmas of the prevailing religion of that geographical region then such man is declared as “possessed by demons” or is declared as crazy and is put into lunatic asylum.
In other words, exactly the same identical phenomenon of brain physiology (seeing virtual non-existing object/character) is treated twofold: 1) either as the proof of madness or 2) the proof of holiness.
As for example, if you will tell to Christians that you have seen the elf then Christians will put you into lunatic asylum, however if you will tell to Christians that you have seen the Jesus or Virgin Mary then Christians will declare you as the saint and after your death Christians will build memorials to honor you and will pray to you as to saint and so on.
It is interesting to note that temples usually are built in the locations where some religious adept had seen a “vision” which conforms to the dogmas of his religion. As for example Christians build chapels/churches/cathedral/crosses/etc in locations where some Christian has seen Jesus/Virgin Mary/etc in a “vision”, exactly the same situation is in Hinduism and also in other religions. According to modern psychiatry all such “visions” perfectly match the criteria of “hallucination” and people who see such “visions” are classified as mentally ill patients. Majority of religious architectural buildings were build in locations where some religious adept had seen hallucinatory visions – thus we see that hallucinatory visions play quite a big role in human society.

Religious adepts claim that Gods/angels/demons are some kind of souls that exist beyond the material world and sometimes manifest themselves to some “chosen” people and these “chosen” people can communicate with Gods/angels/demons. It is very easy to show that such claim contradicts real world facts. Let’s analyze for example Christian “spiritual beings” like Jesus and Virgin Mary. Jesus and Virgin Mary manifest themselves in “spiritual visions” only to the people who know in advance about the existence of Jesus/Mary and who believe in the existence of Jesus/Mary. However, if a man has never heard about Jesus/Mary before, then Jesus/Mary will never show up in “spiritual visions” for such a man. As for example, Jesus/Mary will be unable to manifest himself to a shaman in the Amazon rainforest who has never seen white people in his lifetime, however such shaman in “spiritual visions” can see Indian gods/spirits of Amazon rainforest without any problems. The Aborigines of Australia and Indians of America began seeing Jesus/Mary in “spiritual visions” only after European Christian missionaries arrived into Australia and America and introduced Aborigines and Indians with Jesus/Mary. Until arrival of European Christian missionaries into Australia/America local people had never seen Jesus or Mary in their “spiritual visions”, they saw only the gods/spirits/etc of their own religion. The point is that if Jesus/Mary would be some kind of “soul-flying-around” then he could fly on his own around the world and he would be able to manifest himself to aboriginal people all around the globe, and the aboriginal people would see Jesus/Mary in their “spiritual visions” and would convert themselves into Christians even without any involvement of European Christian missionaries. When European Christians arrived into new unexplored geographical locations they should find local aboriginal people already worshiping Jesus/Mary because Jesus/Mary should had been manifesting themselves to local aboriginal people long time ago before arrival of European Christians. However such scenario had never happened. There is not a single case of such scenario recorded in the history.
Exactly the same principle is valid for European Christians as well – if a Christian knows nothing about Indian Gods/spirits then Indian God/spirit will be unable to manifest himself to European Christian in “spiritual vision”.
In other words, in “spiritual vision” a man can see only such “God” about which he knows in advance, however if a man has never heard before about that particular “God” then he will be unable to see this “God” in “spiritual visions”.
Why does this happen? The underlying mechanism is following. When a man goes to sleep he sees various objects/characters in the dream, like for example he sees in the dream his mother/father/brother, his friend, a cat, a bird, etc. Suppose the man sees a cat in his dream. The cat in the dream has all the features of the real cat: walks like real cat, meows like real cat, eats like real cat, etc.
Why does the dream cat have all the features of the real cat? The answer is simple. The man earlier had seen the real cat and the model of the cat was stored in the neural circuits of man’s brain. During the dreaming process when dream simulator needs to present the image of the cat to the main personality, the dream simulator sends query to the brain’s knowledge database “what do we know about the cats? Please provide the model of the cat and we will draw the image of the cat in the dream”. If the man’s brain contains the model of the cat then the dream simulator uses that cluster of neurons which contains the cat model and draws the image of the cat in the dream. However if the cat model is absent in the brain then dream simulator is unable to draw the cat in the dream because the dream simulator has no data how the cat should look like.
It is important to note that the cluster of neurons which contains the model of cat, dog or some other animal, under some conditions can take over the control of man’s body and in this case we have shamanic-magic conversion of “werewolf” type. Ancient Norse chronicles report about berserkers (or berserks) – fierce Norse warriors who were able to transform into a wolf or a bear thus becoming unbeatable in the battle. Berserkers felt no pain and believed that he had transformed into wolf or bear.
Phenomenon of Norse “berserkers” resembles the “cafard” or “cathard” (Polynesia), “mal de pelea” (Puerto Rico), “iich'aa” (Navaho), Zulu battle trance, also similar phenomena are found in Laos, Papua New Guinea, and elsewhere.
In modern psychiatry the ancient phenomenon of “berserkers” is known under names “clinical lycanthropy” and “amok”. A neuroimaging study of patients diagnosed with clinical lycanthropy revealed that parts of the brain known to be involved in representing body shape display unusual activation, which means that when people report their bodies are changing shape, they are really perceiving those feelings.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_lycanthropy
Clinical lycanthropy is defined as a rare psychiatric syndrome that involves a delusion that the affected person can transform into, has transformed into, or is a non-human animal. Its name is connected to the mythical condition of lycanthropy, a supernatural affliction in which humans are said to physically shapeshift into wolves.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Running_amok
Running amok, sometimes referred to as simply amok, also spelled amuk, from the Malay, is "an episode of sudden mass assault against people or objects usually by a single individual following a period of brooding that has traditionally been regarded as occurring especially in Indonesian culture but is now increasingly viewed as psychopathological behavior occurring worldwide in numerous countries and cultures". The syndrome of "Amok" is found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR). The phrase is often used in a less serious manner when describing something that is wildly out of control or causing a frenzy (e.g., a dog tearing up the living room furniture might be termed as "running amok.")
Wikipedia

Here is a documentary movie which shows how this looks in practice. It is important to note people in the movie are not acting, the movie shows the real condition of the people during religious practices of Pentecostalism (movement within Christianity).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZnyLUjm1JY

(In Russian) Животные звуки в "Торонтстком благословении".
Length: 2 minutes

The same identical phenomenon in different cultures is found under different specific names. The general name of this phenomenon is “spirit possession”.
In all cases and in all cultures there is a similar pattern – the “spirit possession” is much more common in women than in men (10 or more times more likely).
More detailed description is in the article “Spirit possession in various cultures”.

The important law of brain physiology is following: dream simulator can simulate only such objects/characters about which knowledge database of the brain has at least a minimum bit of information. If amount of information about the object/character in the brain is total zero then dream simulator will be unable to simulate such object/character. Dream simulator needs to have at least a minimum bit of information about the object/character – it does not matter if that information is correct or incorrect – what matters is having any bit of information – and dream simulator will be able to simulate that object/character. When main personality tries to access the object about which the brain has zero information then the access is blocked. The blockage can manifest itself in various ways, as for example: 1) as bumping into invisible wall which you cannot penetrate, 2) as getting into sticky mass when it becomes very hard to move and every new trial to move renders sticky mass even stickier until final complete stoppage like a fly stuck in the honey; 3) as complete throwing from the dream into reality (into full awakening state); 4) etc.
The same principle applies to reading of new unknown book while being the dream state. Many people report that when you try to read new unknown book while being the dream state the text immediately becomes diffused and unreadable and very often you end up thrown from the dream into reality (into full awakening state). Why does this happen? The underlying mechanism is very simple. The brain has no knowledge what should be written in the book and this is the reason why dream simulators begins to block in all possible ways the reading process of the book. However, if the contents of the book are known to the brain in advance (that book was read earlier when being in full awakening state) then you will have no troubles to study such book while being in the dream.

The brain creates “new” objects in the following way.
Neurons generate spontaneous impulses even in the resting state without any external stimulus.
When a man is in the “spiritual world” the spontaneous activity of neurons generate “new” objects for the main personality.
These “new” objects are created by combining the building blocks (pieces) taken from various “old” objects and combining these building blocks (pieces) into the “new” object and adding random noise to each of this composing building block.
As for example, a “new” person Z might be built in the following way: take the eyes of person A, add the nose of person B, add the mouth of person C, add the hairs of person D, add the gait of person E, and so on – mix them all together by adding random noise for each of the composing building block – and in the result you will get “new” person Z.
By the way, the same identical method is used to create fabulous objects in the “spiritual world” – such as the talking tree, the talking stone, etc. A “new” object is created from the building blocks taken from various “old” objects and mixing these building blocks together.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neural_oscillation
Both single neurons and groups of neurons can generate oscillatory activity spontaneously.
<…>
Spontaneous activity is brain activity in the absence of an explicit task, such as sensory input or motor output, and hence also referred to as resting-state activity. It is opposed to induced activity, i.e. brain activity that is induced by sensory stimuli or motor responses. The term ongoing brain activity is used in electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography for those signal components that are not associated with the processing of a stimulus or the occurrence of specific other events, such as moving a body part, i.e. events that do not form evoked potentials/evoked fields, or induced activity. Spontaneous activity is usually considered to be noise if one is interested in stimulus processing; however, spontaneous activity is considered to play a crucial role during brain development, such as in network formation and synaptogenesis. Spontaneous activity may be informative regarding the current mental state of the person (e.g. wakefulness, alertness) and is often used in sleep research. Certain types of oscillatory activity, such as alpha waves, are part of spontaneous activity. Statistical analysis of power fluctuations of alpha activity reveals a bimodal distribution, i.e. a high- and low-amplitude mode, and hence shows that resting-state activity does not just reflect a noise process. In case of fMRI, spontaneous fluctuations in the Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal reveal correlation patterns that are linked to resting states networks, such as the default network. The temporal evolution of resting state networks is correlated with fluctuations of oscillatory EEG activity in different frequency bands.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuronal_noise
Neuronal noise or neural noise refers to the random intrinsic electrical fluctuations within neuronal networks. These fluctuations are not associated with encoding a response to internal or external stimuli and can be from one to two orders of magnitude. Most noise commonly occurs below a voltage-threshold that is needed for an action potential to occur, but sometimes it can be present in the form of an action potential; for example, stochastic oscillations in pacemaker neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus are partially responsible for the organization of circadian rhythms.
Wikipedia

A good analogy of spontaneous/background activity of neurons is the thermal noise in electronics.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson%E2%80%93Nyquist_noise
Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage. 
Wikipedia

Spontaneous/background neuronal activity can be caused by many reasons.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuronal_noise
Neuronal noise or neural noise refers to the random intrinsic electrical fluctuations within neuronal networks. These fluctuations are not associated with encoding a response to internal or external stimuli and can be from one to two orders of magnitude. Most noise commonly occurs below a voltage-threshold that is needed for an action potential to occur, but sometimes it can be present in the form of an action potential; for example, stochastic oscillations in pacemaker neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus are partially responsible for the organization of circadian rhythms.
<...>
Types
Ions exist inside and outside of the neuron and are subject to many bodily conditions. One major source of noise arises from ions or molecules in response to the third law of thermodynamics. This law states that the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches zero. Since the body maintains temperatures above 0K, the molecules are subjected to increased kinetic energy, or motion. The stochastic, or random, movements give rise to receptor noise produced by the constant bombardment of ions, as described by Brownian motion. Ions are constantly being leaked across the membrane in efforts to equalize the ionic gradient produced by ATPase channels embedded in the membrane. These leaky channels permit the movement of ions across the membrane leading to small fluctuations, or noise, in the membrane potential.
Synapses are another major source of neural noise. More than often, there is random exocytosis of vesicles containing neurotransmitters, which eventually bind to the postsynaptic membrane, leading to a spontaneous action potential by graded potentials in the postsynaptic neuron. It is considered the largest-amplitude noise source in the cerebral cortex.

Sources
Noise present in neural system gives rise to the variability in the non-linear dynamical systems, but a black box still exists for the mechanism in which noise affects neural signal conduction. Instead, research has focused more on the sources of the noise present in dynamic neural networks. Several sources of response variability exist for neurons and neural networks:
   ● Thermal noise: Johnson–Nyquist noise occurs due to the thermal motions of ions and other charge carriers, producing voltage fluctuations proportional to temperature. This source of noise is attributed to the third law of thermodynamics, stating that kinetic energy of molecules increases with a raise in temperature. Thermal noise is the weakest source of noise and can be considered negligible.
   ● Ionic conductance noise: Ion channels in the membrane undergo spontaneous changes in conformation between different states and can open (or close) due to thermal fluctuations. The transmembrane embedded protein channels are made up of small subunits that undergo conformational changes and are affected by thermal fluctuations. When temperature drops below 33 °C, the rate at which the channel becomes active or inactive decreases. In contrast when the temperature is increased above 33 °C, the rate at which the channel becomes active or inactive increases.
   ● Ion pump noise: Membrane embedded ATPase ion pumps produce fluctuating potentials by transporting ions against their concentration gradient. The multistep process in which ions are transported across their gradient requires ATP. The steps involved in active transport have a net forward direction, but small stochastic steps still exist in the conformational process that move backwards. These backward steps contribute to neuronal noise present in all dynamic neuronal circuits.
   ● Ion channel shot noise: The number of ions that migrate through an open ion channel are discrete and random. In synapses, the number of calcium ions that enter the postsynaptic side after a spike is on the order of 250 ions, potentially making potentiation processes noisy. This noise is also associated with thermal fluctuations affecting the protein channels, as previously mentioned. This is not to be confused with shot noise, which is noise produced by the random generation of action potentials in neurons.
   ● Synaptic release noise: Generally, action potentials are transferred down a neuron, which then are converted to either electrical or chemical signals between neurons. Chemical synapses are not deterministic, which means that every action potential produced does not result in the release of neurotransmitters. Rather, the release of vesicles containing neurotransmitters are probabilistic in nature. The number of vesicles released by a single synapse is random in response to a specific input signal and is further influenced by the firing history of the pre- and post-synaptic neurons. This means that neurotransmitters can be released in the absence of an input signal.
   ● Synaptic bombardment: The large number of incoming spikes add a fluctuating amount of charge to the cell, which depends on the structure of the incoming spike trains and affects the cell's excitability.
   ● Chaos: Chaotic dynamics can occur in single cells (due to periodic inputs or bursting due to intrinsic currents). Simple networks of neurons can also exhibit chaotic dynamics. Even if the chaos is deterministic, it can amplify noise from the other sources to macroscopic levels due to sensitive dependence on initial conditions.
   ● Connectivity noise: Noise that arises from the number of connections and non-uniformity that a neuron has with other neurons within a neuronal network. There is a stronger presence of sub-threshold noise when the interconnectivity is strengthened, or the number of connection to other neurons is increased. The opposite remains true, too. If the interconnectivity of the neurons is decreased so then is the level of sub-threshold noise.
   ● Environmental Stimuli: Noise can be produced on a larger scale due to fluctuations in CO2, which lead to variations in blood flow. The level of CO2 in the blood allows for either vasoconstriction or vasodilation, which can encroach, or expand, into nearby neural networks producing noise.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bursting
Bursting, or burst firing, is an extremely diverse general phenomenon of the activation patterns of neurons in the central nervous system and spinal cord where periods of rapid action potential spiking are followed by G0 phase quiescent periods. Bursting is thought to be important in the operation of robust central pattern generators, the transmission of neural codes, and some neuropathologies such as epilepsy. The study of bursting both directly and in how it takes part in other neural phenomena has been very popular since the beginnings of cellular neuroscience and is closely tied to the fields of neural synchronization, neural coding, plasticity, and attention.
Observed bursts are named by the number of discrete action potentials they are composed of: a doublet is a two-spike burst, a triplet three and a quadruplet four. Neurons that are intrinsically prone to bursting behavior are referred to as bursters and this tendency to burst may be a product of the environment or the phenotype of the cell.

Physiological context

Neurons typically operate by firing single action potential spikes in relative isolation as discrete input postsynaptic potentials combine and drive the membrane potential across the threshold. Bursting can instead occur for many reasons, but neurons can be generally grouped as exhibiting input-driven or intrinsic bursting. Most cells will exhibit bursting if they are driven by a constant, subthreshold input and particular cells which are genotypically prone to bursting (called bursters) have complex feedback systems which will produce bursting patterns with less dependence on input and sometimes even in isolation.
In each case, the physiological system is often thought as being the action of two linked subsystems. The fast subsystem is responsible for each spike the neuron produces. The slow subsystem modulates the shape and intensity of these spikes before eventually triggering quiescence.
Input-driven bursting often encodes the intensity of input into the bursting frequency where a neuron then acts as an integrator. Intrinsic bursting is a more specialized phenomenon and is believed to play a much more diverse role in neural computation.
Wikipedia

In order for animal to survive in natural environment the animal’s brain must be constantly modeling the surrounding physical world. As for example when the squirrel wants to jump from one branch of the tree to another branch, at first squirrel’s brain must calculate and model the physical processes – the trajectory of the jump, the effect of gravitation, the power needed for the jump, the effect of wind/rain/obstacles to the trajectory of jump – and only after the brain has modeled the physical surrounding and has made necessary calculations – only then the squirrel accomplishes the jump. No matter which action the animal is doing (walking, running, flying, etc) – its brain always needs to model the surrounding physical world. If the animal’s brain would not model the surrounding physical world then such animal would perish in the next moment – as for example by hitting a rock with its head, by choking with the water which it is drinking, and so on.
In other words, the brain contains neural circuits (neuroclusters) which are responsible for modeling of the surrounding physical world. These neural circuits simulate the virtual copy of the real physical world and in this virtual world a whole bunch of different actions with different parameters are simulated and after these calculations are completed the option with the best outcome result is chosen for implementation into the real surrounding physical world. All this modeling is constantly done inside the brain and main personality is not involved in this modeling, all modeling happens at the subconscious level. The main personality simply gets the results of the modeling and that’s all.
When a man goes to sleep, all sensory inputs (sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch) are disconnected from the main personality and main personality is thrown into virtual simulated world. Neural circuits which are responsible for modeling of the surrounding physical world begin to generate virtual worlds and virtual objects which are presented to the main personality and as a result man sees a dream. Usually the man cannot control this process and man can only passively dizzily observe these virtual surroundings in similar way like watching the movie in the theater. However there some special techniques which allow to act actively in the dream scenario while remaining fully conscious – these techniques are called “lucid dreaming”. A lucid dream is a dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming. In a lucid dream, the dreamer may be able to exert some degree of control over their participation within the dream or be able to manipulate their imaginary experiences in the dream environment.
The objects and surroundings in the lucid dreams can be unrealistic. In other words the neural circuits which are responsible for modeling of the surrounding physical world can create and present unrealistic objects for the main personality.
And in the case when neural circuits generate very realistic objects for the main personality, then such phenomena is called “astral journey”, “astral projection”, “out-of-body experience”, etc.
By using the techniques for leaving physical body one can exercise his brain in all possible areas and the skills acquired in such out-of-body training will remain even after the man returns back to his body. As for example, the tennis player can train to play tennis when being in out-of-body mode and his tennis skills will be actually improved when he will return back to his body (after awakening). All this is possible because the neural circuits can fully simulate the real physical world with all physical laws. However such training when being in out-of-body mode is useful only if neural circuits simulate the physical world accurately enough. When a man drinks alcohol in “cultured way” or cripples his brain in some other ways, then training when being in out-of-body mode is not possible, because even in the best case scenario the main personality will be thrown into hallucinatory world which will be created by alcohol crippled brain.
Adepts of the eastern esoteric tradition (various yogis, etc) devote their lives and spent many years struggling their way towards “nirvana” (or out-of-body state) using various techniques like ascetics, yoga, pranayama, etc. Despite huge endeavors and decades of practice only very small percentage of eastern-adepts succeed in reaching the desired goal, and the ones who have reached this goal are considered as great “gurus” (spiritual teachers) and thousands of disciples flow to such gurus with the desire to learn to reach this goal.
The highest spiritual state which is accessible only to the greatest gurus who exercise titanic endeavors and decades of time can be easily reached in several hours without any ascetics, yoga, pranayama or any other “spiritual techniques”. The technology is very simple. All you need to do is to disconnect the main personality from all sensory inputs and after several hours a man will be thrown into “nirvana” and/or other “spiritual worlds” automatically. The technical implementation is very simple. All you need to do is to put a man into special tank called „sensory deprivation tank“ (a.k.a. isolation tank, flotation tank, John C. Lilly tank, REST tank, sensory attenuation tank, and think tank) – a lightless, soundproof tank inside which subjects float in salt water at skin temperature, which results in elimination of all sensory inputs. When a man is put into sensory deprivation conditions, such man will be thrown into “nirvana” and/or other “spiritual worlds” after several hours and he will be able to meet and speak with various “spiritual beings” like angels, demons or even God himself. Astronauts in space also sometimes experience sensory deprivation, as for example, Edgar Dean Mitchell Sc. D., (an astronaut who walked on the Moon) claims that on his way back to earth during the Apollo 14 flight he had a powerful Savikalpa samādhi experience (in Hinduism Savikalpa samādhi is a state of samādhi in which one's consciousness temporarily dissolves into Brahman).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_deprivation
Sensory deprivation (Sendep) or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. Simple devices such as blindfolds or hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing, while more complex devices can also cut off the sense of smell, touch, taste, thermoception (heat-sense), and 'gravity'. Sensory deprivation has been used in various alternative medicines and in psychological experiments (e.g., see isolation tank). Sensory deprivation can be used also in sexual acts to produce a feeling of repression or make other senses more sensitive, for example feel of touch can be stronger if blindfold is in use.
Short-term sessions of sensory deprivation are described as relaxing and conducive to meditation; however, extended or forced sensory deprivation can result in extreme anxiety, hallucinations, bizarre thoughts, and depression.
A related phenomenon is perceptual deprivation, also called the ganzfeld effect. In this case a constant uniform stimulus is used instead of attempting to remove the stimuli, this leads to effects which has similarities to sensory deprivation.
<...>
Studies have been conducted to test the effect of sensory deprivation on the brain. One study took 19 volunteers, all of whom tested in the lower and upper 20th percentiles on a questionnaire which measures the tendency of healthy people to see things not really there, and placed them into a pitch black, soundproof booth for 15 minutes. After, they completed another test that measures psychosis-like experiences, originally used to study recreational drug users. Five people reported seeing hallucinations of faces, six reported seeing shapes/faces not actually there, four noted a heightened sense of smell and two people reported sensing a "presence of evil" in the room. Unsurprisingly, people who scored lower on the first test experienced fewer perceptual distortions; however, they still reported seeing a variety of delusions and hallucinations.
According to the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease the hallucinations are caused by the brain misidentifying the source of what it is currently experiencing, a phenomenon called faulty source monitoring.
<...>
In January 2008, the BBC aired a Horizon special entitled "Total Isolation." The premise of the show centered on 6 individuals agreeing to be shut in a cell inside a nuclear bunker, alone and in complete darkness for 48 hours. Prior to isolation, the volunteers underwent tests of visual memory, information processing, verbal fluency and suggestibility.
After the two days and two nights the subjects noted that their inability to sense time, as well as hallucinations, made the experience difficult. Of the six volunteers, three experienced auditory and visual hallucinations — snakes, oysters, tiny cars and zebras. One was convinced their sheets were wet. Two seemed to cope well.
When complete, the same tests were conducted a second time. The results indicated all volunteers' ability to complete the simplest tasks had deteriorated. One subject's memory capacity fell 36% and all the subjects had trouble thinking of words beginning with a nominated letter; in this case, the letter "F". All four of the men (neither of the two women) had markedly increased suggestibility.
Wikipedia

http://phys.org/news/2009-10-sensory-deprivation-hallucinations-minutes.html
Sensory deprivation can produce hallucinations in only 15 minutes
By Lin Edwards
Phys.org Science X network. October 23, 2009.

Many religious leaders had been practicing prolonged sensory deprivation procedures which help to induce artificial hallucinations in which the religious adept can hear the voice of God and/or the voice of other various spiritual beings. In order to achieve sensory deprivation, the religious adepts usually climb onto high mountains, lodge in the cave and so on. As for example, the founder of Islam Muhammad climbed onto the mountain called Jabal an-Nour (near Mecca) and stayed alone for many days in the cave called Hira, in which, after many days of sensory deprivation, Muhammad began hearing the voice of “archangel Gabriel” who dictated the text of Quran to Muhammad.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad's_first_revelation
According to Islam, Muhammad's first revelation was the event in which Muhammad was visited by the archangel Gabriel who revealed to him a verse from the Quran. The event took place in a cave called Hira, located on the mountain called Jabal an-Nour, near Mecca.
According to biographies of Muhammad, while on retreat in a mountain cave near Mecca (the cave of Hira), Gabriel appears before him and commands him to recite the first lines of chapter 96 of the Quran. Muhammad's experience is mentioned in the Quran 53:4-9 <...>
Wikipedia

http://www.sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_1_01.php
Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3:
Narrated by 'Aisha
(the mother of the faithful believers) The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allah's Apostle was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright day light, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allah alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadija to take his food like-wise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read. <...>
Sahih Bukhari. Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sahih_al-Bukhari
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Arabic: صحيح البخاري‎), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam. These prophetic traditions, or hadith, were collected by the Iranian Muslim scholar Muhammad al-Bukhari, after being transmitted orally for generations. Sunni Muslims view this as one of the three most trusted collections of hadith along with Sahih Muslim and Muwatta Imam Malik. It is also used as an authentic hadith collection by Zaidi Shia Muslims. In some circles, it is considered the most authentic book after the Quran. The Arabic word sahih translates as authentic or correct.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadith
Different branches of Islam refer to different collections of hadith, though the same incident may be found in hadith in different collections:
   ● In the Sunni branch of Islam, the canonical hadith collections are the six books, of which Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim generally have the highest status. The other books of hadith are Sunan Abu Dawood, Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Al-Sunan al-Sughra and Sunan ibn Majah. However the Malikis, one of the five Sunni "schools of thought" (madhhabs), traditionally reject Sunan ibn Majah and assert the canonical status of Muwatta Imam Malik. The Fath al-Bari commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari and Al-Nawawi's commentary on Sahih Muslim are studied alongside the hadith, although they are sharh and not part of the hadith themselves.
   ● In the Shi'a branch of Islam, the canonical hadith collections are the Four Books: Kitab al-Kafi, Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, and Al-Istibsar.
   ● In the Ibadi branch of Islam, the main canonical collection is the Tartib al-Musnad. This is an expansion of the earlier Jami Sahih collection, which retains canonical status in its own right.
   ● The Ahmadiyya branch of Islam generally relies on Sunni hadith collections.
Wikipedia

Let’s raise a question: how real are these “spiritual worlds”? To answer this question we will use the analogy. Let’s analyze a computer game which has its own 2D or 3D virtual world, its own virtual characters, its own laws and rules, etc. When a man plays a computer game, he interacts with this virtual game world, he communicates with virtual game characters as if this virtual world is real. However if we will physically destroy the computer then automatically this virtual world will disappear and all virtual characters will disappear too.
Exactly the same situation is with “spiritual worlds”. All these “spiritual worlds” are generated by the neuroclusters in the brain (exactly the same happens during dreaming) and the main personality (which enters such “spiritual world”) has no tools whatsoever to distinguish a simulated virtual world from the real world. When the main personality enters “spiritual world” then everything inside such “spiritual world” looks very realistic.
Like with the computer, exactly the same situation is with the brain – “spiritual world” exists only as long as the physical brain exists which generates the sounds and images of “spiritual world” – and if the brain is physically destroyed then all these “spiritual worlds” are destroyed too.
However religious adepts naively believe that “spiritual worlds” can exist without physical brain. Such a belief is equivalent to the belief that the virtual world of computer game will continue to exist after the computer has been physically destroyed.

When a man is put into “spiritual world” state, the neural circuits which do the modeling create pictures and sounds in a concordance to the belief system of that man. Let’s illustrate with several examples. The majority of so called “astral travel experts” claim that physical human body is connected with “astral body” through an “astral (silver) cord”.“Astral travel experts” claim that this astral cord is quite thick when the astral body is located near the physical body and this astral cord becomes thinner and thinner when the astral body wanders away from the physical body. If this astral cord becomes broken then the astral body is unable to return to the physical body and a man dies or in some cases some alien spiritual being (like demonic spirit) can attach itself to that broken astral cord and thus can incarnate into the human body replacing the original human soul (such phenomenon is called “demonic possession”). Such are the claims of “astral travel experts”. However the reality is completely different. If a man had been instructed about astral cord existence before this man was taught the techniques of astral traveling then such man will see and feel the astral cord during his astral traveling, such man will confirm that the astral cord surely does really exists. However if a man had never heard about astral cord existence before this man was taught techniques of astral traveling then such man will never see and will never feel any astral cord during his journeys in the “astral world”. The conclusion is simple. When a man is put into “spiritual world” state the neural circuits which do the modeling create pictures and sounds in a concordance to the belief system of that man. For example if a man believes in the existence of Jesus Christ, then such man during the travel in “spiritual world” will surely meet Jesus Christ. If a man believes in the existence of Krishna/Buddha/etc then such man will meet Krishna/Buddha/etc during his travel in “spiritual world”. The belief system of a man determines the images which he will see during the “spiritual travel”. As for example, famous Bulgarian clairvoyant Baba Vanga always saw and communicated with “saint virgin Mary” and not with Vishnu/Shiva/Krisha or whatever else non-Christian deity. Bulgarian clairvoyant Baba Vanga in her childhood was imprinted with Christian dogmatism and thus as the result Baba Vanga communicated only with Christian characters like “saint Virgin Mary” in her “spiritual visions”.
Many people have experienced leaving physical body (a.k.a. OOBE – out of body experience). When being outside of the physical body some people are able to see their own physical body, however other people do not see their own physical body. What is the cause of such difference? The answer is simple. People whose brain contains clear detailed model of their own physical body do see their own physical body while being in OOBE. The detailed model of the physical body is formed in the brain when a man spends countless hours in front of the mirror examining himself from all sides, examining every spot, every hair and other small details. However other people spend minimum of their time in the front of the mirror – such man glances briefly into the mirror to check if his nose is not smudged with tomato ketchup or if cheeks are not stuck with crumbs of cake – and that’s all he needs to know – in such case the model of the physical body in such man’s brain is very rough and smeared – and when such man experiences OOBE, there is very small probability that he will be able to see his own physical body from aside because of the simple fact – the neural circuits in his brain have too few data in order to be able to model and create image of his physical body viewed from aside (viewed from third person perspective).
The situation with the chakras is identical to the situation with astral cord. In “spiritual journeys” chakras are seen only by those people who knew and believed in advance that chakras do exist. The concept of “chakras” belong to the eastern tradition and this the reason why during “spiritual journeys” chakras are seen only by the adepts of the eastern tradition. In other religions there is no concept of “chakras” (like for example in Christianity, Islam, etc) and for that reason adepts of such religions do not report seeing “chakras” when being in “spiritual journeys”. A man can see chakras only when the model of chakras is written into brain in advance. The writing of model into the brain is accomplished when a man studies pictures with chakras, reads texts about features of chakras, listens lectures about chakras, etc.
Neuroclusters in the brain usually store models of real-world-objects, however neuroclusters can also store models of non-real-world objects (a good example or non-real-world object is “chakras”).

Models of the objects can be copied from one human brain into another human brain in the similar way like computer files can be copied from one computer into another. The model of object X is copied from one human brain into another brain when man A tells to man B the features of object X, draws and shows the pictures of object X, makes statuette of object X and shows it, etc.
When two or more people have the same identical (or very similar) model of object X written in their brains – this phenomenon is called the “egregor X”.
Egregor is the same identical object X model which is multiplied and written into the brains of two or more individuals.
Egregor is the equivalent of the computer program and has many features of computer program (it can be copied, overwritten, deleted, etc), however there are some differences from computer program.
As for example egregor has a feature called “the strength of egregor”.
The strength of egregor increases when increases the number of people who have the same object X model written in their brains. The bigger the number of people who are the carriers of egregor – the stronger the egregor.
The working principle of the egregor strength is very simple.
Suppose we have a man A whose brain has no data about object X.
If man A meets man B whose brain contains object X model, then copying of model X from man’s B brain into man’s A brain meets great resistance because of high suspicion if the model X is reliable and if the model X can be trusted.
However if man A meets two(2) other men who are the carriers of object X model, then copying of model X into man’s A brain is done more easily because the fact that two other men trust the model X decreases the suspicion that the model X is unreliable.
If man A meets ten(10) other men who are the carriers of object X model, then copying of model X into man’s A brain is done more easily because the fact that ten other men trust the model X decreases the suspicion that the model X is unreliable.
And so on.
If man A sees that a million men are carriers of object X model, then copying of model X into man’s A brain is done almost without any checks of model X validity.
The strength of egregor X is directly proportional to the number of people who are the carriers of object X model.
The strength of egregor has no correlation with the truthfulness of facts which are contained inside the egregor.
The egregor can be very strong, however facts which are contained inside the egregor can be absolutely false.
And vice versa.The egregor can be weak, however facts which are contained inside the egregor can be true.
Strong egregor has a power to force a man into accepting ideas and claims which contradict real world data.

In year 1976 British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins coined new term “meme” which has roughly equivalent meaning to the word “egregor”. Evolutionary biologists naively believe that the “meme” is a new revolutionary invention of twentieth century, however actually this is not true at all. Richard Dawkins invented new term “meme” because he did not knew that the word “egregor” had been already in use for at least several thousand years and that “egregor” has roughly equivalent meaning as the word “meme”. The word “meme” is simply the reinvention of the bicycle.We use the term “egregor” because the word “egregor” was already in use at least several thousand years before the introduction of new term “meme”. However there is one little technical problem with the word “egregor” – for hundreds of years the word “egregor” has been extensively used in various occult and pseudoscientific texts which mutilated, garbled and distorted the meaning and definition of the word “egregor”.
The term “egregor” was already included into “The Theosophical Glossary” published by H.P. Blavatsky in year 1892, while Richard Dawkins coined new term “meme” only in year 1976.

http://www.phx-ult-lodge.org/Aglossary.htm
The Theosophical Glossary
by H.P. Blavatsky
First published 1892.
http://www.phx-ult-lodge.org/DEFGHIJK.htm#e
Egregores. Eliphas Lévi calls them “the chiefs of the souls who are the spirits of energy and action” ; whatever that may or may not mean. The Oriental Occultists describe the Egregores as Beings whose bodies and essence is a tissue of the so-called astral light. They are the shadows of the higher Planetary Spirits whose bodies are of the essence of the higher divine light.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme
The word meme <...> was coined by the British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene (1976).
Wikipedia

The word “egregor” was used in “The Book of Enoch” which is more than two thousand years old.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egregore
Egregore (also egregor) is an occult concept representing a "thoughtform" or "collective group mind", an autonomous psychic entity made up of, and influencing, the thoughts of a group of people. <…>
the word is the normal form that the Greek word ἑγρήγορος (Watcher) would take in French. This was the term used in the Book of Enoch for great angel-like spirits.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Enoch
The Book of Enoch is an ancient Jewish religious work, traditionally ascribed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. <…>
The older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) are estimated to date from about 300 BC, and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BC.
Wikipedia

The term “atom” was coined by Democritus in 450 BCE, however this term remained unused and was not available in dictionaries until modern times. Also the modern meaning of word “atom” is different from that which was used by Democritus. Democritus did not know anything about protons and electrons and also Democritus had no tools to investigate and to prove the existence of “atoms”.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom
In approximately 450 BCE, Democritus coined the term átomos (Greek: ἄτομος), which means "uncuttable" or "the smallest indivisible particle of matter". Although the Indian and Greek concepts of the atom were based purely on philosophy, modern science has retained the name coined by Democritus.
Wikipedia

Like with the term “atom” the same exact situation is with word “egregor”. Actually it does not matter at which date exactly (how many years ago) the term “egregor” was coined and used for the first time. What matters here is that the term “egregor” was already in use many years ago before Richard Dawkins coined new term “meme” in year 1976. It does not matter if the word “egregor” had slightly different meaning from the modern current meaning.
In case if some readers have any objections about the meaning of the term “egregor” – here is the alternative explanation – you can consider that we simply take the term “egregor” and redefine this term anew – we have full right to declare and to write definitions for the terms which we use. And actually we must declare the exact definitions of used terms in order the reader would be able to understand the meaning of the text.
We will repeat again the definition of the “egregor” in order to dispose of occult and pseudoscientific legacy – egregor is the same identical object X model which is multiplied and written into the brains of two or more individuals.

A “cluster” is a group or bunch of several homogeneous elements, which can be considered as a separate unit, which has certain properties. As for example, in physics cluster can be a small group of atoms or molecules, in astrophysics there are star clusters consisting of stars, and galaxy clusters consisting of galaxies, and so on. The same physical element can be assigned to different unrelated logical clusters. As for example, in human population we can divide the people in clusters using different criteria – as for example, we can divide people by their religion and we will get cluster of Christians, cluster of Muslims, cluster of Buddhists and so on, however we can divide the same exact population by the favorite color which a man likes and we will get cluster of people who like red color, cluster of people who like blue color, cluster of people who like green color and so on. It is obvious that the same exact man will get into absolutely different clusters when filtered out by religion and when filtered out by his favorite color. There will be many Christians, Muslims and Buddhists who like red color, there will be many Christians, Muslims and Buddhists who like blue color, and so on. In exactly the same fashion the neurons in the brain can be grouped into different logical clusters. The neurons can be grouped into the same cluster by the color to which these neurons respond, the neurons can be grouped into the same cluster by the same orientation visual bar stimulus to which these neurons respond, and so on.

Important notice: when we use the term “neurocluster” (neural cluster) in the context of Neurocluster Brain Model – the default meaning is “egregoric neurocluster”, i.e. neurocluster which stores information about the egregor (object X model).

Egregoric neurocluster which has “declared independence” from the rest of the brain and which can communicate with the main personality as a separate entity in scientology is called as “demon circuit”. For as long as people have been speaking they have been hearing voices in their head. The founder of scientology L. Ron Hubbard in his “Dianetics” book described the source of these voices or “demons”. He described that these voices are stemmed not from another entity but from a heretofor unsuspected part of the mind. L. Ron Hubbard’s definition of “demon” is below.

http://books.google.com/books?id=16a6IZiAwIUC&pg=PA106&lpg=PA106#v=onepage&q&f=false
A dianetic demon is a parasitic circuit. It has an action in the mind which approximates another entity than self. And it is derived entirely from words contained in engrams. <...> All these demons are parasitic. That is to say, they take a part of the analyzer and compartment it off. A demon can think only as well as the person’s mind can think. There is no extra power. No benefit. All loss. It is possible to set up the whole computer (analyzer) as a demon circuit and leave “I” on a tiny and forlorn shelf.
Fair use quotes from works of L. Ron Hubbard.
Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. Chapter IV. The “Demons”, page 106


DEMON, Slang. a by-pass circuit in the mind, called demon because it was long so interpreted. Probably an electronic mechanism. (DMSMH Gloss) 2. a bona-fide demon is one who gives thoughts voice or echoes the spoken word interiorly or who gives all sorts of complicated advice like a real, live voice exteriorly. (DMSMH, p. 88) 3. Dn use of the word is descriptive slang. (EOS, p. 16)

DEMON CIRCUIT, 1. that mental mechanism set up by an engram command which, becoming restimulated and supercharged with secondary engrams, takes over a portion of the analyzer and acts as an individual being. Any command containing “you” and seeking to dominate or nullify the individual’s judgment is potentially a demon circuit. It doesn’t become a real live demon circuit until it becomes keyed-in and picks up secondary engrams and locks. (NOTL, p. 80) 2. a heavily charged portion of the analytical mind which has been captured by the reactive mind and does its bidding, walled off by charge into a separate entity. (SOS, p. 67) 3, any circuit that vocalizes your thoughts for you. That’s not natural. It’s an installed mechanism from engrams and it slows up thought. (DASF)
Fair use quotes from works of L. Ron Hubbard.
L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary, 1983.

Egregoric neurocluster which has less power than the “demon” and which is unable to broadcast voices to main personality (nevertheless which affects and controls the man’s behavior in negative way) in scientology is called as “engram”. Scientologists claim that they have working techniques (which in scientology are called “auditing”) which enable to get rid of the engrams.
In the highest stages of scientological “bridge to total freedom” (which are called “Operating Thetan” or OT levels) scientologists recieve working techniques to get rid of “alien thetans” (in scientology the “soul” is called “thetan”). “Alien thetans” are also the same egregoric neuroclusters which have slightly different parameters from engrams and demon circuits. In other words, scientology claims to have working techniques to deal with various types of egregoric neuroclusters (which in scientology are called engrams, demon circuits and alien thetans).

L. Ron Hubbard’s definitions of “demon” and “demon circuit” show that L. Ron Hubbard was very close to defining “demon” as the part of the physical brain formed from egregoric neurocluster, however L. Ron Hubbard failed to reach this simple conclusion.
Ironically, L. Ron Hubbard who taught his adepts in OT levels how to get rid of “alien thetans” (i.e. egregoric neuroclusters) himself has become the slave victim of egregoric neuroclusters and began broadcasting hallucinatory “knowledge” which L. Ron Hubbard received from neuroclusters inside his own brain – a good example is the story of Xenu which is taught in Operating Thetan level III.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenu
Xenu, was, according to Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, the dictator of the "Galactic Confederacy" who 75 million years ago brought billions of his people to Earth (then known as "Teegeeack") in a DC-8-like spacecraft, stacked them around volcanoes and killed them using hydrogen bombs. Official Scientology scriptures hold that the thetans of these many people remained, and that they cling to people, causing them spiritual harm.
These events are known within Scientology as "Incident II", and the traumatic memories associated with them as "The Wall of Fire" or the R6 implant. The narrative of Xenu is part of Scientologist teachings about extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in earthly events, collectively described as "space opera" by Hubbard. Hubbard detailed the story in Operating Thetan level III (OT III) in 1967, warning that the R6 "implant" (past trauma) was "calculated to kill (by pneumonia, etc.) anyone who attempts to solve it".
Within the Church of Scientology, the Xenu story is part of the church's secret "Advanced Technology", considered a sacred and esoteric teaching, which is normally only revealed to members who have contributed large amounts of money. The church avoids mention of Xenu in public statements and has gone to considerable effort to maintain the story's confidentiality, including legal action on the grounds of copyright and trade secrecy. Officials of the Church of Scientology widely deny or try to hide the Xenu story. Despite this, much material on Xenu has leaked to the public via court documents, copies of Hubbard's notes, and the Internet.
Wikipedia

Despite the Xenu story is a pure fantasy of L. Ron Hubbard, however this does not mean that so called “alien thetans” do not exist. If we will dispose of all occult pseudoscientific stuff in Xenu story, then “alien thetans” are simply egregoric neuroclusters which have slightly different parameters from engrams and demon circuits.

http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/wakefield/us-07.html
On Level II, an idea is introduced that existed as early as the Dianetics book in 1950, but which now becomes central, and this is the idea of "entities." In Dianetics, Hubbard referred to the idea of "circuits," or "demon circuits", the existence of disparate entities attached to a person. This belief comes into its own on the OT levels. Although on the Clearing Course, the person has (theoretically) audited out his own reactive mind, on OT II he now has to deal with the reactive minds of those beings, or demons, attached to him. It is done in much the same way it was done on the Solo and Clearing courses. <...>
Because Hubbard says that each person on earth has hundreds of body thetans, Scientologists can spend a hundred hours or more auditing on OT III. The result, in theory, of being freed from all one's body thetans is that one should be able to "exteriorize," or go out of one's body at will. Although many Scientologists claim this ability, there is in Scientology no objective test to determine if this ability has ever been achieved.
Margery Wakefield. Understanding Scientology. Chapter 7: OT – Through the Wall of Fire and Beyond

Scientology claims to have working techniques to deal with various types of egregoric neuroclusters (which in scientology are called engrams, demon circuits and alien thetans).
These scientological techniques sometimes can really solve various types of psychosomatic problems and the adepts of scientology many times have seen personally that these techniques really do work – and that is the reason why the adepts of scientology naively believe that everything what L. Ron Hubbard said is 100 percent true.
L. Ron Hubbard has written more books than any other man on the Earth. L. Ron Hubbard holds Guinness World Record for “Most Published Works by One Author”, however the scientific value of L. Ron Hubbard’s books is almost zero because L. Ron Hubbard’s books are written in babble style and contain a lot of errors. Reading the books of L. Ron Hubbard is a simple waste of time – a much better way to get acquainted with scientological techniques is to watch movies made by the Church of Scientology, some of these movies are quite good (like for example “Dianetics – A Visual Guidebook to the Mind”, “How to Use Dianetics”).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Written_works_of_L._Ron_Hubbard
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron <…>
holds four Guinness World Records for “Most Published Works by One Author”, “Most Audio Books Published for One Author”, “Most Translated Author in the World”, and "Most Translated Author, Same Book"
Wikipedia

http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records-5000/most-published-works-by-one-author/
The most published works by one author is 1,084 by L. Ron Hubbard (USA) whose first work was published in February 1934 and the last in March 2006.
Guinness World Records

The adepts who leave the scientology become addicted to scientological techniques and cannot live normal life without them (the addiction is equivalent to narcotic addiction), so ex-scientologists practice the same scientological techniques in so called “free zone”.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Zone_(Scientology)
The Free Zone (or independent Scientologists or Scientology Freezone) comprises a variety of groups and individuals who practice Scientology beliefs and techniques independently of the Church of Scientology (CoS). Such practitioners range from those who closely adhere to the original teachings of Scientology's founder L. Ron Hubbard, to those who have so far adapted their practices to be almost unrecognizable as Scientology.
Wikipedia

Official psychiatry and scientology are deadly enemies and have collected tons of compromising material about each other. Psychiatry officially claims that scientology is a pseudoscience.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dianetics
 Dianetics has achieved no acceptance as a scientific theory, and is an example of a pseudoscience.
Wikipedia

However it is interesting to note that some psychiatry schools use techniques taken from dianetics/scientology which are simply repackaged and renamed into new names. Several examples of such cases are psychiatric technique with the name “Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR)” which was developed by Frank A. Gerbode and psychiatric technique with the name “Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)” which was developed by Francine Shapiro – which are simple clones of scientological “auditing” technique repacked into new names.

http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Traumatic_incident_reduction
Origins of TIR
Frank A. Gerbode developed TIR by investigating Dianetics and working back to the origins of the Dianetics technique, then in use by the Church of Scientology. Until 1982 he had been a member of the Church of Scientology, at one time running the Palo Alto Mission of Scientology. After his departure, the Church of Scientology sued Dr. Gerbode; the suit culminated in a settlement in 1994.
Psychology Wiki

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientology_and_the_legal_system
In Religious Technology Center v. Gerbode, 1994 WL 228607 (C.D. Cal. 1994) (against Frank A. Gerbode, inventor of Traumatic Incident Reduction), a Rule 11 sanction of $8,887.50 was imposed against Helena Kobrin, an attorney for the Church, for bringing baseless and frivolous claims.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_therapies
Power Therapies is a term coined by professor Charles Figley, Florida State University Traumatology Institute, to group several novel treatments of post traumatic stress. Described this way, due to the apparent ability of these methods to work so rapidly compared to other methods at the time, Figley aimed to identify the "active ingredients" of these therapies — EMDR, TFT, EFT, VK/D, and TIR.
Wikipedia

L. Ron Hubbard first published dianetic techniques in 1950 in book “Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health”. Forty years later (in 1989) Francine Shapiro repacked scientological “auditing” technique into new name “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)”, and also renamed all scientological terms into new names, as for example Francine Shapiro’s “PTSD phenomenon” is essentially identical to scientology “engram” and so on.
It is interesting to note that EMDR was awarded by multiple awards from psychiatric and psychological organizations despite the fact that EMDR is essentially the clone of scientological “auditing” technique, and according to official claims of psychiatry scientological “auditing” is pseudoscience. The only difference of EMDR from scientological “auditing” is that EMDR contains totally unnecessary bogus requirement for the patient to stare and follow the moving finger of the doctor. If you will remove from EMDR the unnecessary bogus requirement for the patient to stare and follow the moving finger of the doctor then you will have quite a good clone of scientological “auditing” technique.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMDR
Controversy over mechanisms and effectiveness
EMDR has generated a great deal of controversy since its inception in 1989. Critics of EMDR argue that the eye movements do not play a central role, that the mechanisms of eye movements are speculative, and that the theory leading to the practice is not falsifiable and therefore not amenable to scientific inquiry.
The working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of EMDR, and whether the eye movement component in EMDR contributes to its clinical effectiveness are still points of uncertainty and contentious debate.
<...>
An early critical review and meta-analysis that looked at the contribution of eye movement to treatment effectiveness in EMDR concluded that eye movement is not necessary to the treatment effect. Salkovskis (2002) reported that the eye movement is irrelevant, and that the effectiveness of the procedure is solely due to its having properties similar to cognitive behavioral therapies, such as desensitization and exposure.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francine_Shapiro
Awards
As the originator of EMDR, Dr. Shapiro is a recipient of a variety of awards, including the International Sigmund Freud Award for Psychotherapy of the City of Vienna in conjunction with the World Council for Psychotherapy, the American Psychological Association Trauma Psychology Division Award for Outstanding Contributions to Practice in Trauma Psychology, and the Distinguished Scientific Achievement in Psychology Award presented by the California Psychological Association.
Wikipedia

The advantage of EMDR, TIR and “Freezone” over scientological “auditing” is that they are cheaper. All battles between psychiatry and the Church of Scientology are simply the battles over adept’s/patient’s money.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clear_(Scientology)
Clear in Dianetics and Scientology is one of two levels a practitioner can achieve on the way to personal salvation. A state of Clear is reached when a person becomes free of the influence of engrams, unwanted emotions or painful traumas not readily available to the conscious mind. Scientologists believe that human beings accumulate anxieties, psychosomatic illnesses, and aberration due to receiving engrams throughout their lives. By applying dianetics, every single person can reach Clear.
<...>
 It is estimated that the cost of reaching the Clear state in Scientology is $128,000.
Wikipedia

The Church of Scientology claims that if a man will read scientological documents of higher level than this man is rated according to the Church of Scientology, then such man will surely become very ill and might even die. These claims were disproved in year 2008 when WikiLeaks released top secret Operating Thetan documents of the Church of Scientology and now everybody on the planet can read and analyze these secret Operating Thetan documents – thousands of people have read these secret Operating Thetan documents and nobody got ill despite the intimidating claims of the Church of Scientology.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_Thetan
In March 2008, the Church of Scientology's Operating Thetan documents were leaked on WikiLeaks. The Church of Scientology claimed their hosting is a copyright violation implying that the collection is Church doctrine. The court found that it was legal to download, use, read, and practice these teachings outside the church.
Wikipedia

The human brain contains billions of neurons and all these neurons process the information in parallel. The main personality does not have the direct access to all neural calculations which are done in the brain – many neural calculations are done in the independent autonomous neuroclusters and the results of these calculations remain “invisible” to the main personality during normal awareness state. However during the dream/OOBE stage the information from autonomous neuroclusters can be transferred to main personality and main personality thus gains “new knowledge”. The source of that “new knowledge” physically lies inside the brain of that man however it is inaccessible during normal awareness state.
The “new knowledge” which was gained during OOBE stage is not the source of absolute truth – the reliability level of such “new knowledge” is equivalent to watching news on TV – it might have some value however it might be total disinformation as well.
There are many people who do not know that neurons in the brain process the information in parallel. So here is the short proof of parallel processing in the brain.
Human eye contains retina, which contains millions of neural cells (called “cones” and “rods”) and all these cells process visual information in parallel. Rods and cones are connected to other neural cells called “bipolar cells” and all these all these bipolar cells process visual information in parallel. Bipolar cells are connected to other neural cells called “ganglion cells” and all these all these ganglion cells process visual information in parallel. The axons of ganglion cells form optic nerve which contains between 770,000 and 1.7 million nerve fibers and all these million of fibers send visual information in parallel. And so on and so on.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retina
Physical structure of human retina. <…> The entire retina contains about 7 million cones and 75 to 150 million rods. <…> In the outer the rods and cones connect to the vertically running bipolar cells, and the horizontally oriented horizontal cells connect to ganglion cells.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optic_nerve
Each human optic nerve contains between 770,000 and 1.7 million nerve fibers, which are axons of the retinal ganglion cells of one retina.
Wikipedia

From neurobiological point of view the eye is actually part of the brain.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_perception
The retina is actually part of the brain that is isolated to serve as a transducer for the conversion of patterns of light into neuronal signals. The lens of the eye focuses light on the photoreceptive cells of the retina, which detect the photons of light and respond by producing neural impulses. These signals are processed in a hierarchical fashion by different parts of the brain, from the retina upstream to central ganglia in the brain.
Wikipedia

Hierarchical processing does not contradict to the concept of parallel processing. Millions of neural cells in retina (cons and rods) receive and process visual information simultaneously in parallel, then processed information is passed to the next layer of neural cells (bipolar cells) where millions of bipolar cells process visual information simultaneously in parallel, then processed information is passed to the next layer of neural cells and so on. All these layers also process information simultaneously in parallel, the only difference is that different layers process information with different time delay, however all layers process information simultaneously in parallel and also every layer has millions of neural cells which process information simultaneously in parallel. The brain works as massively parallel computing machine.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_neural_network
Neural networks are also similar to biological neural networks in performing functions collectively and in parallel by the units, rather than there being a clear delineation of subtasks to which various units are assigned.
Wikipedia

We will repeat once again – from neurobiological point of view the eye is actually part of the brain. The neural cells in retina do process visual information, and this processing can be pretty complex, as for example the retina of the frog contains “fly detectors”, which can detect the moving fly/insect. The eye of the frog acts as parallel computing machine which is able to detect moving flies/insects without involving any other parts of the brain in the computations.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feature_detection_(nervous_system)
Horace B. Barlow was one of the first investigators to use the concept of the feature detector to relate the receptive field of a neuron to a specific animal behavior. In 1953, H.B. Barlow’s electrophysiological recordings from excised retina of the frog provided the first evidence for the presence of an inhibitory surround in the receptive field of a frog’s retinal ganglion cell. In reference to “on-off” ganglion cells – which respond to both the transition from light to dark and the transition from dark to light – and also had very restricted receptive fields of visual angle (about the size of a fly at the distance that the frog could strike), Barlow stated, “It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the ‘on-off’ units are matched to the stimulus and act as fly detectors”.
Wikipedia

Neurons in the brain are organized into groups/networks/clusters which are specialized in solving various tasks. In other words, the brain consists of multiple modules which independently solve the tasks and present only the final result to the main personality. The main personality is able to observe and control the detailed flow of calculations only in very small number of modules. However majority of modules do not let in the main personality into the process solving the task and these modules solve the task completely independently and only when the final result is ready then this result is presented to the main personality. The main personality was not involved into the process of solving the problem and main personality was even not aware that solving was taking place. The main personality simply received the final answer/solution to the problem and due to the ignorance of the brain physiology people naively believe that they have received “revelation” from “out of this world”. It is interesting to note that religious adepts naively believe that “revelations” which they have received themselves surely must come from divine sources (from God, angels, etc) and not from demons, and that “revelations” received by adepts of competing religions surely must come from demonic sources and not from divine sources. However the truth is that all these “revelations” come from autonomous neuroclusters inside their own brain. These “revelations” sometimes are called as “heart's voice”, “insight” or “intuition”.
In psychology and psychiatry autonomous neuroclusters have ill-defined name “subconscious”, and when autonomous neuroclusters provide ready-made solution for the main personality – psychologists and psychiatrists call such phenomenon as “intuition” while religious adepts call the same phenomenon as “divine enlightenment”.
Official psychiatry/psychology is unable to provide clear scientific definition of “intuition” and is unable to explain the underlying mechanism of “intuition”, however Neurocluster Brain Model provides clear and simple definition:
Intuition is the flow of information from autonomous neuroclusters to the main personality.
It is important to note that when a man’s brain functions poorly then the intuition of such man functions poorly too. This is due to simple reason – intuition is the part of his poorly functioning brain.

Many esoteric schools offer various “intuition training programs” claiming that with “intuition training” you can achieve astral projection, telekinesis, dream control, past life recall, and many more exciting abilities.
There is a very popular myth that it is very good to have high intuition, according to that myth – the higher the intuition the better.
However the reality is following.
The level of intuition is directly proportional to the percentage of autonomous independent areas (neuroclusters) in the brain which do not let the main personality to control calculations which occur in these areas of the brain.
The bigger the number of such uncontrollable independent neuroclusters in the brain – the higher the intuition.
The level of intuition is a measure of how much the main personality does not have the control over neuroclusters inside the brain.
If main personality has 100% control over all neuroclusters in the brain then intuition is equal to 0%.
If main personality has 0% control over all neuroclusters in the brain then intuition is equal to 100%.
If main personality has 50% control over all neuroclusters in the brain then intuition is equal to 50%.
And so on.
By the way, there is one popular claim used massively in the media which says “women have more intuition than men” which is naively presented as an advantage. However, let’s raise a simple question: having no control over his own brain is an advantage or not?

The term “subconscious” has the same problems as the term “intuition” – official psychiatry/psychology is unable to provide clear scientific definition of “subconscious” and is unable to explain the underlying mechanism of “subconscious”, however Neurocluster Brain Model provides clear and simple definition:
subconscious is the array of autonomous neuroclusters which are insubordinate to the main personality.
Autonomous neuroclusters (a.k.a. subconscious) provide only final calculated result to the main personality, they do not allow main personality to observe and control calculations which are done in autonomous neuroclusters. Autonomous neuroclusters can process and store processed information without main personality being aware of that stored information. Main personality can gain some limited access to that stored information (in autonomous neuroclusters) during the dreams and during “spiritual travels”.
The term “subconscious mind” is roughly equivalent to independent autonomous neuroclusters which can carry on a vast number of activities outside of the main personality’s conscious awareness.

Another popular synonym for the term “subconscious” is “unconscious” (a.k.a. “unconscious mind”). The authors who coined the term “unconscious mind” revealed their total lack of knowledge about brain physiology because all neurons in the brain are busy with information processing and all these neurons are “conscious”, in other words “unconscious mind” is the mind which is always “conscious” even when the main personality is not aware of their activity. The term “unconscious mind” is erroneous and obvious oxymoron.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxymoron
An oxymoron (plural oxymora or oxymorons) is a figure of speech that juxtaposes elements that appear to be contradictory. <...>
The most common form of oxymoron involves an adjective–noun combination of two words. <...> examples of oxymora of this kind include:
   ● Dark light
   ● Living dead
   ● Guest host (also: Permanent guest host)
   ● Little while
   ● Crazy wisdom
   ● Mournful optimist
   ● Violent relaxation
Less often seen are noun–verb combinations of two words, such as the line "The silence whistles" from Nathan Alterman's "Summer Night", or in a song title like Simon & Garfunkel's "The Sound of Silence".
Wikipedia

According to the teachings of scientology the mind is composed of two parts: 1) analytical mind and 2) reactive mind. The translation of scientological terms “analytical mind” and “reactive mind” into the terminology used in Neurocluster Brain Model is the following: the “analytical mind” are the parts of the brain (neuroclusters) which are under the control of the main personality, and the “reactive mind” are the parts of the brain (neuroclusters) which are insubordinate to the main personality. Scientological term “reactive mind” in official psychiatry/psychology is called “subconscious”.
According to the teachings of scientology the “reactive mind” is the place where “engrams” are stored.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engram_(Dianetics)
In Dianetics and Scientology, an engram is defined as "a mental image picture which is a recording of an experience containing pain, unconsciousness and a real or fancied threat to survival. It is a recording in the reactive mind of something which actually happened to an individual in the past and which contained pain and unconsciousness ... It must, by definition, have impact or injury as part of its content. These engrams are a complete recording, down to the last accurate detail, of every perception present in a moment of partial or full unconsciousness."
Wikipedia

The translation of scientological term “engram” into the terminology used in Neurocluster Brain Model is the following: “engram” is autonomous neurocluster which contains the software subroutine/procedure/function/routine/subprogram which constantly in real time checks the surrounding environment conditions and if it detects some predefined trigger stimulus then it initiates reaction of the organism even when the main personality might be not aware of that stimulus.
Let’s illustrate the idea with some examples. Suppose some time in the past you ate some spoiled food (for example spoiled egg) and you got sick after that. The information about that event automatically gets stored inside some neurocluster and this neurocluster becomes the “sentry” which constantly monitors the surrounding environment scanning for the smell/taste/form/etc of that food which got you sick. This “sentry” neurocluster becomes active for the whole lifetime after it is formed. No matter where do you go, no matter what do you do, this “sentry” neurocluster constantly scans the environment searching for the signs of spoiled food, and when it is triggered then it initiates the avoidance reaction of the organism even when the main personality might be unaware of the stimulus which triggered the reaction. When “sentry” neurocluster is triggered, the man might become nervous/anxious/hysteric/etc and such man will have no awareness and will have no knowledge whatsoever about what is causing this condition.
We will provide another classical example of the formation of “sentry” neurocluster . When a child for the first time touches some hot thing and gets painfully burned – after that event a “sentry” neurocluster is formed which constantly monitors the surrounding environment for the hot items.
There are thousands of such “sentry” neuroclusters in the brain of the man and all these “sentry” neuroclusters run their scanning-searching subroutines fully autonomously and without any involvement of the main personality.
The scientology claims that all “engrams” are bad and a man should get rid of all “engrams” thus becoming “clear”. However this claim is false. There are myriads of “engrams” which are absolute biological necessity for the organism to survive – as for example, “engrams” which save you from burning from hot objects, “engrams” which save you from falling from extreme heights, “engrams” which save you from bedwetting while you are asleep, and so on. If you will “clear” the brain from all “engrams” as suggested by the scientological doctrine, then such organism would perish the same day (by falling from extreme height, by eating spoiled food, etc) – the scientological idea of becoming “fully cleared” and “completely free from engrams” is a nonsense incompatible with the sustaining of life. However the claims of scientology about “engrams” are not completely incorrect – despite there are myriads of “engrams” which are absolute biological necessity for the organism to survive, some of the “engrams” might produce negative effects on the quality of life of the man and clearing of such “engrams” will really improve the quality of life – some educational movies of the Church of Scientology provide good examples of such cases, like for example “Dianetics – A Visual Guidebook to the Mind”, “How to Use Dianetics”, etc.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clear_(Scientology)
Clear in Dianetics and Scientology is one of two levels a practitioner can achieve on the way to personal salvation. A state of Clear is reached when a person becomes free of the influence of engrams, unwanted emotions or painful traumas not readily available to the conscious mind. Scientologists believe that human beings accumulate anxieties, psychosomatic illnesses, and aberration due to receiving engrams throughout their lives. By applying dianetics, every single person can reach Clear.
A person is said to be a Clear when he "no longer has his own reactive mind and therefore suffers none of the ill effects that the reactive mind can cause." A Clear is said to be "at cause over" (in control of) their "mental energy" (their thoughts), and able to think clearly even when faced with the very situation that in earlier times caused them difficulty. The next level of spiritual development is that of an Operating Thetan. A person who has not reached a state of Clear is called a "pre-clear."
Dianetics states that a person's awareness is influenced by the stimulus-response of the reactive mind. Achieving the state of Clear means a person has overcome the reactive mind and is in complete control of their analytical mind. According to Hubbard: "A Clear is a being who no longer has his own reactive mind, and therefore suffers none of the ill effects the reactive mind can cause. The Clear has no engrams which, when restimulated, throw out the correctness of his computations by entering hidden and false data." It is estimated that the cost of reaching the Clear state in Scientology is $128,000.
Wikipedia

Let’s return to “multiple personality disorder” which was described above. In earlier times “multiple personality disorder” was called “double conscious”, “double consciousness”, or “dual personality” and only much later (approximately at the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century) it got the name “multiple personality disorder”.
The term “schizophrenia” was made up from two Greek roots: skhizein (gr. σχίζω) which means “to split” and phrēn (gr. φρήν) which means “mind”. The exact translation from Greek of word “schizophrenia” means “split mind”, thus the word “schizophrenia” would be a much better term to describe the patient’s condition than the term “multiple personality disorder”. However the word “schizophrenia” was already in use in psychiatry having another meaning, thus new term was needed to be invented in order word meanings do not clash. Thus instead of word “schizophrenia” the new name “multiple personality disorder” was given. In year 1994 American Psychiatric Association renamed “multiple personality disorder” into improper name “dissociative identity disorder (DID)” which clearly reveals that official psychiatry has no clue whatsoever about underlying mechanism of “multiple personality disorder”.
Term which is used by the person to describe the phenomenon reveals the level of that person’s comprehension about the phenomenon. The higher level of comprehension enables to forecast and to control manifestation of that phenomenon. As for example, in earlier times people called the lightning as “punishment of God” and people trying to avoid the lightning strike were praying to various Gods, while nowadays people call the lightning as “electric discharge” and use lightning rods to avoid lightning strikes.

Why does the psychiatry have so many problems with “multiple personality disorder”? The answer is very simple. First of all – “multiple personality disorder” is a very rare phenomenon – it is so rare that many psychiatrists/psychologist have even never heard of it. Secondly, very often patients diagnosed as “multiple personality disorder” simply have big fantasies and have nothing to do with real “multiple personality disorder”. Theses fakers with big fantasies bring a chaos into psychiatry because many psychiatrists after dealing with such fake cases come to wrong conclusion that “multiple personality disorder” is non-existing phenomenon. “Multiple personality disorder” is obvious only when there is a drastic change in all patient’s behavior: the change in voice timbre, the change in vocabulary used, the change in handwriting script, the change in gait, etc. However such cases are very rare. It is much more common when after “switch of personality” there are almost no change in voice timbre, no change in vocabulary used, no change in handwriting script, no change in gait – however the patient claims that now he is not Peter, but instead he is John. Such “personality switches” are totally inconvincible and look like a simple fake. Thus when a psychiatrist has seen only such cases in his practice, he makes a wrong conclusion that there is no such thing as “multiple personality disorder”, that all this is fake, and that you need to call this thing as “dissociative identity disorder (DID)“.
Yes, indeed there cases of fake “multiple personality disorder”. However there is a scientific tool which enables to discern fake cases from real cases of “multiple personality disorder”. fMRI scans of the brain during the “switching” of personalities (a.k.a. “alters”) can easily discern fake cases from real cases of “multiple personality disorder”. In genuine case of “multiple personality disorder” during the “switch” of personality there is a sudden change of active brain areas in fMRI image. In fake case of “multiple personality disorder” during the “switch” of personality there is almost no change of active brain areas in fMRI image.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_magnetic_resonance_imaging
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.
Wikipedia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhM0xp5vXqY

MPD patient switching on command and in brain scanner
Length: 8 minutes

Clip from BBC Tomorrow's World programme showing a patient with multiple personality disorder switching between personalities whilst undergoing an MRI brain scan.

http://science.jrank.org/pages/4495/Multiple-Personality-Disorder-History-incidence.html
Bonnie L.Schwidand (2014):
I have been a forensic document examiner with an emphasis on handwriting examinations for the past 35 years, and have had an opportunity to collect writings from a man who has been diagnosed with MPD/DID. In a case study using a writing tablet and accompanying software, we were able to demonstrate that the writings of at least three of the 'personalities' were distinguishable forensically. We are looking for additional studies.
Net Industries. Education, knowledge, information.

http://www.i-g-s.org/igs2011/IGS2011Schwidposter_final.pps
Forensic examination of the writing of a man with multiple personalities
Forensic examination of the writing of a man with multiple personalities
By Bonnie L. Schwid (BS, D-BFDE, Anagraphics, LLC) & Hans-Leo Teulings (Neuroscript, LLC)
International Graphonomics Society (IGS)

https://www.researchgate.net/...dissociative_identity_disorder_--_A_longitudinal_and_a_kinematic_study
Abstract:
Forensic Document Examiners (FDEs) may confront questioned handwritings of persons diagnosed with a Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), formerly known as a multiple personality disorder. While there is scientific research on DID, most of the literature related to handwriting in DID is anecdotal. Many articles refer to modifications of handwriting for each personality, but no evidence has been found to indicate that handwriting was analyzed using a kinematic approach to collect dynamic data from the writing. This paper will be the first known study to compare the different personalities of a participant diagnosed with DID by recording pen movements and establishing dynamic variables using a Wacom pen tablet and the MovAlyzeR software, an objective standard for measuring writing for scientific research in handwriting. The results of the kinematic analysis are then compared to a conventional analysis. Initial results show both static and kinematic differences between the personalities. Additionally, this study documents the stability of the personalities over time, from 1993 to 2011.
By Bonnie L.Schwidand, Hans-LeoTeulings
Case Study: Writings of a Person with Dissociative Identity Disorder - a Longitudinal and a Kinematic Study.
Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 2013, YoL23, pp. 41-61.

We will remind that the level of intuition is a measure of how much the main personality does not have the control over neuroclusters inside the brain. The bigger the number of such uncontrollable independent neuroclusters in the brain – the higher the intuition.
In other words, the level of intuition is a measure of “split mind”, the level of intuition is a measure of “schizophrenia” (if original Greek etymology is used). Here additional explanation is needed. The real world fact is that by definition the brain of every human alive contains autonomous neuroclusters (because such are neuroanatomical laws), the only difference is that in different people these autonomous neuroclusters have different level of autonomy and independence. In some people the main personality keeps autonomous neuroclusters quite under the control, while in other people the autonomous neuroclusters are so powerful that these neuroclusters begin issuing commands for main personality – this phenomenon is perceived as “voice from heaven”, “voice of cosmos”, “angel Gabriel”, etc.
According to the Greek etymology of the term “schizophrenia” – the more powerful and the more autonomous are neuroclusters – the higher is level of schizophrenia. By definition, all people are schizophrenic, only the level of schizophrenia is different in different people. Some people are schizophrenic only teeny-tiny, while other people are very schizophrenic. When the level of schizophrenia exceeds some threshold then psychiatrists label such man as “schizophrenic”. There is a common misconception that a man is either schizophrenic or he is not. Such comprehension is fundamentally wrong. The reality is that all people are schizophrenic, however psychiatrists put the label “schizophrenic” only when the level of schizophrenia exceeds some threshold. We will clarify this by using the analogy. Almost all people drink alcohol (with rare exceptions), for the sake of simplicity let’s assume that all people drink alcohol. The reality is that all people who drink alcohol are “alcohol addicts” no matter of how much alcohol they consume. However doctors put the label “alcohol addict” only when some threshold of consumed alcohol is exceeded. Exactly the same situation is with schizophrenia – psychiatrists put the label “schizophrenic” only when the level of schizophrenia exceeds some threshold.
The higher the intuition – the more “schizophrenic” the man is. When the level of intuition exceeds some threshold then psychiatrists put such man is into lunatic asylum.

When some former colonial country breaks apart from the empire and declares independence then after some time that country may become even more powerful than the former empire – a good example of such scenario is USA which declared independence from British Empire on July 4, 1776. Exactly in the same way some cluster of neurons may declare independence from the main personality and may become stronger and stronger eventually becoming even more clever/powerful than the main personality. Some esoteric schools provide courses for “intuition training” claiming that increasing the level of intuition is advantageous. However, let’s raise a simple question: training neuroclusters in your own brain to become independent from the main personality is an advantage or not? Having no control over your own brain is an advantage or not?
The brain is parallel computing machine which solves many tasks in parallel and neurons group themselves into clusters for solving one or another task. Some neuroclusters can “steal” neurons from other neuroclusters thus expanding their own domination and power, also some neuroclusters may force other neuroclusters to subdue. If some neurocluster takes over enough amount of resources (i.e. enough number of neurons) then it can become powerful enough to compete with the main personality. If such neurocluster takes over even more resources then it may become even more clever than the main personality.
When autonomous neurocluster becomes more clever than the main personality then it can surprise the main personality by its level of knowledge and the main personality will start to believe that he is communicating with “higher spiritual beings” or even God himself.
If autonomous neurocluster has friendly symbiotic attitude towards the main personality then it is called as “angel/archangel/God/etc”, however if autonomous neurocluster has hostile attitude towards the main personality then it is called “demonic/satanic/black spirit”.
The brain may contain not one but many autonomous neuroclusters which are more clever than the main personality and these neuroclusters are competing for the resources – all the battles between Gods and demons are happening inside the same territory – inside the brain of the man.
It is important to note that when a God/demon settles inside the brain of the man then the strength/power of that God/demon is at the expense of the main personality. The more recourses the God/demon steals from the main personality the more powerful the God/demon becomes. In other words, the more clever becomes the God/demon the more dumber becomes the main personality. It is important to note that prayers to the particular God strengthen the neurocluster which represents that God, thus the more religious adept prays to his God the more dumber becomes the main personality of that religious adept – such are the laws of brain physiology.
When the main personality has no control over some areas of the brain then the following scenarios are possible with these uncontrolled areas:
1) they may become a chaotic anarchy (which happens very often) and such phenomenon is called “schizophrenia” – lunatic asylums are full of such people and many such people are freely walking in the streets;
2) these uncontrolled areas may be taken over by Gods/demons (such cases are quite rare). In psychiatry it is considered that if a man has began talking with “cosmos/higher intelligence/god/angels/demons/aliens/etc” then such condition is considered to be the highest stage of mental illness which is impossible to cure – such patients are drugged with psychotropic drugs which render the patient into vegetable-like state – the psychiatry has no other effective tools how to treat “talking with cosmos”.

Almost all religious teachings use the phrase “this man sold his soul to the devil”. The physiological meaning of this phrase is very simple – the main personality voluntarily “sells” the brain resources (areas of brain) to the demon naively believing that he will get something valuable in exchange/return. The demon/God happily takes over given areas of brain, however if the demon/God will thank to the main personality for the gift – that remains an open question – the most probable scenario is that demon/God will give nothing valuable in return.
Esoteric schools provide various techniques for development of “astral body” which provides the ability to travel into “spiritual worlds”.
The physiological nature of the “astral body” is exactly identical to physiological nature of demons/Gods which were described above, the only difference from demons/Gods – the “astral body” is not independent – the “astral body” is like a diving/space-suit, a vehicle into which the main personality can transfer itself and the main personality can use this vehicle for traveling inside “spiritual worlds”. If you want to be able to travel inside “spiritual worlds” then having “astral body” in your disposition is not enough. You also need that your “astral body” would be strong and powerful because feeble “astral body” is incapable to carry you far away. The analogy is the car. If your car is broken/rotten/decayed then you will be unable to travel far away using such car. You need to take care of your car and it will take care of you. Exactly the same situation is with “astral body” – you need to take care of your “astral body” in order to keep it strong and healthy. The “astral body” is represented by cluster of physical neurons – if man’s physical brain is functioning poorly then “astral body” will function poorly too. If areas of physical brain containing “astral body” will be physically damaged/destroyed then “astral body” will be damaged/destroyed too and man will lose the ability to travel inside “spiritual worlds”.

It has been reported that CIA possess special brainwashing and mind control techniques which can artificially induce MPD (multiple personality disorder) in a target person. Such artificially created MPD in CIA is called by a nickname “Manchurian Candidate” or “Jekyll-Hyde”. The usage of “Jekyll-Hyde” person in a military missions provides huge advantages – the artificially induced personality can accomplish some preprogrammed task (like killing or blowing up somebody) and the main personality has no knowledge whatsoever about it. Even if the enemy will catch “Jekyll-Hyde” and will torture him to death, he will not give away the secret because the main personality has no access to artificially implanted personality’s knowledge database.
It has been reported that it is possible to artificially implant into human brain up to 20-40 independent personalities which can remain dormant (latent) for years until the demand of the creator who can provoke manifestation of these hidden independent personalities to accomplish the needed mission.

For some movies about brainwashing and mind control please click here.

Eastern esoteric schools are superior to abrahamic religions because eastern esoteric schools have workable techniques and tools for “getting into the spiritual worlds” and “meeting spiritual beings”, while in abrahamic religions only few random adepts manage to “get into the spiritual worlds” and these “spiritual” adepts have no clue how did they managed to “get into the spiritual world” and they can’t teach these skills for other adepts. Adepts of abrahamic religions explain this situation in the following way – God acts in mysterious ways, God chooses some people in mysterious ways and God gives these chosen people the ability to get into “spiritual world”.In other words adepts of abrahamic religions have no control and no workable techniques and no working tools for “getting into spiritual worlds” – there are however some exceptions, like Pentecostalism, which will be covered later.

Eastern tradition has a concept of “kundalini”. Adepts of eastern tradition believe that the power of kundalini lies coiled at the base of the spine and special training and special techniques can free kundalini power – can lift kundalini power upwards in the spine towards the top of the head. Gurus of eastern tradition claim that kundalini is very powerful force and that incorrect handling of kundalini will cripple or even will kill a man. Spiritual gurus claim that correct handling of kundalini can turn human into semi-god, who for example can turn off the Sun using his power of will. And here we have very important moment. It is obvious that if somebody would turn off the Sun even for a second, then the Earth planet would fly out of its orbit and even if the Sun would be turned on again, the orbit of the Earth would be changed irreversibly which would cause cataclysms and life on Earth would perish and so on. It is obvious that super-yogis who claim that they can turn off the Sun using their kundalini power, turn off the Sun not in the real physical world, but instead they turn off the representation of the Sun in their brain. In other words, the Sun stops its existence only in the brain of super-yogi however the physical real Sun remains shining for all other remaining people.
In the highest levels of yoga yogis learn to turn off/on the representations of objects in their brain and learn to manipulate these representations in various possible ways.
And this is the underlying mechanism of so called “siddhi powers” – supernatural magical powers like telekinesis, teleportation, levitation, etc.
All these “siddhi” phenomena happen inside yogi’s brain and not in the real physical world.
In the highest stages of yoga yogis learn to induce artificial controlled hallucinations inside their own brain – yogis are able to create, to destroy and to manipulate in all possible ways the representations of objects inside their own brain – and it is very easy to prove that, as for example in the case of telekinesis you need to record with video camera the object which the yogi tries to move telekinetically – the video recording will show that the real physical object remains still in the same place while the yogi is convinced that he sees the object being moved – it is not the real physical object which is moving, however the representation of object is moving inside the brain of the yogi.
Yoga schools have detailed techniques and exercises for mastering the highest stages of yoga and yogis spend decades of life trying to evolve skills for inducing artificial controlled hallucinations inside their own brain. Only very small percentage of yogis achieve this desired goal.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddhi
Siddhis are what practitioners believe to be spiritual advancement acquired through sadhana (spiritual practices), such as meditation and yoga. People who have attained this state are formally known as siddhas.
<...>
In the Pancatantra, a siddhi may be the term for any unusual skill or faculty or capability.
Eight primary siddhis

In Hinduism eight siddhis (Ashta Siddhi) are known:
  ● Aṇimā: reducing one's body even to the size of an atom
  ● Mahima: expanding one's body to an infinitely large size
  ● Garima: becoming infinitely heavy
  ● Laghima: becoming almost weightless
  ● Prāpti: having unrestricted access to all places
  ● Prākāmya: realizing whatever one desires
  ● Iṣṭva: possessing absolute lordship
  ● Vaśtva: the power to subjugate all
 
Bhagavata Purana
Five siddhis of yoga and meditation

In the Bhagavata Purana, the five siddhis of yoga and meditation are:
  ● tri-kāla-jñatvam: knowing the past, present and future
  ● advandvam: tolerance of heat, cold and other dualities
  ● para citta ādi abhijñatā: knowing the minds of others and so on
  ● agni arka ambu viṣa ādīnām pratiṣṭambhaḥ: checking the influence of fire, sun, water, poison, and so on
  ● aparājayah: remaining unconquered by others

Ten secondary siddhis
In the Bhagavata Purana, Lord Krishna describes the ten secondary siddhis as:
  ● anūrmi-mattvam: Being undisturbed by hunger, thirst, and other bodily appetites
  ● dūra-śravaṇa: Hearing things far away
  ● dūra-darśanam: Seeing things far away
  ● manaḥ-javah: Moving the body wherever thought goes (teleportation/astral projection)
  ● kāma-rūpam: Assuming any form desired
  ● para-kāya praveśanam: Entering the bodies of others
  ● sva-chanda mṛtyuh: Dying when one desires
  ● devānām saha krīḍā anudarśanam: Witnessing and participating in the pastimes of the gods
  ● yathā sańkalpa saḿsiddhiḥ: Perfect accomplishment of one's determination
  ● ājñā apratihatā gatiḥ: Orders or commands being unimpeded
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abhijñā
Abhijñā (Skt., Pali, abhiññā; Tib., mngon shes, མངོན་ཤེས་) has been translated generally as "knowing," "direct knowing" and "direct knowledge" or, at times more technically, as "higher knowledge" and "supernormal knowledge." In Buddhism, such knowing and knowledge is obtained through virtuous living and meditation. In terms of specifically enumerated knowledges, these include worldly extra-sensory abilities (such as seeing past and future lives) as well as the supramundane extinction of all mental intoxicants (āsava).
<...>
Enumerations of special knowledges
In the Pali Canon, the higher knowledges are often enumerated in a group of six or of three types of knowledge.

The six types of higher knowledges (chalabhiññā) are:
1. "Higher powers" (iddhi-vidhā), such as walking on water and through walls;
2. "Divine ear" (dibba-sota), that is, clairaudience;
3. "Mind-penetrating knowledge" (ceto-pariya-ñāṇa), that is, telepathy;
4. "Remember one's former abodes" (pubbe-nivāsanussati), that is, recalling ones own past lives;
5. "Divine eye" (dibba-cakkhu), that is, knowing others' karmic destinations; and,
6. "Extinction of mental intoxicants" (āsavakkhaya), upon which arahantship follows.

The attainment of these six higher powers is mentioned in a number of discourses, most famously the "Fruits of Contemplative Life Discourse" (Samaññaphala Sutta, DN 2). The first five powers are obtained through meditative concentration (samadhi) while the sixth is obtained through insight (vipassana). The sixth type is the ultimate goal of Buddhism, which is the end of all suffering and destruction of all ignorance. According to the Buddha, indulgence in the abhinjas needs to be avoided, as they can distract from the ultimate goal of Enlightenment.

Similarly, the three knowledges or wisdoms (tevijja or tivijja) are:
1. "Remember one's former abodes" (pubbe-nivāsanussati);
2. "Divine eye" (dibba-cakkhu); and,
3. "Extinction of mental intoxicants" (āsavakkhaya).

The three knowledges are mentioned in numerous discourses including the Maha-Saccaka Sutta (MN 36) in which the Buddha describes obtaining each of these three knowledges on the first, second and third watches respectively of the night of his enlightenment. These forms of knowledge typically are listed as arising after the attainment of the fourth jhana.

While such powers are considered to be indicative of spiritual progress, Buddhism cautions against their indulgence or exhibition since such could divert one from the true path of obtaining suffering's release.

Parallels in other cultures
The first five types of Abhijna, are similar to the siddhis of yoga in Hinduism, mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana and by Patanjali:
  ● Knowing the past, present and future;
  ● Tolerance of heat, cold and other dualities;
  ● Knowing the minds of others;
  ● Checking the influence of fire, sun, water, poison, and so on;
  ● Remaining unconquered by others.
Wikipedia

Yoga guru Swami Vishnudevananda (the disciple of authoritative yoga guru Sivānanda Saraswati) established Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centers which are now spread around the world.
Sivananda Yoga Centre released “The Sivananda Book of Meditation” which is the instructive manual for the yogis. “The Sivananda Book of Meditation” in Chapter 11 (“Deepening meditation state”) clearly states that when yogi practices the yoga correctly then such yogi begins to experience hallucinations – yogi begins to see various hallucinatory colored lights, yogi begins to hear various hallucinatory sounds, yogi travels into “astral worlds” and sees various deities/angels/etc. “The Sivananda Book of Meditation” ends with Chapter 12 (“Experiences of expanded consciousness”) which clearly states that when yogi achieves hallucinations described above the yogi should not stop and yogi should continue, because the ultimate goal of the yogi is the Samadhi state – the state of ultimate hallucinations when a yogi begins to hallucinate that he has merged with the Universe.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sivananda_Saraswati
Sivānanda Saraswati (8 September 1887 – 14 July 1963) was a Hindu spiritual teacher and a proponent of Yoga and Vedanta. Sivānanda was born Kuppuswami in Pattamadai, in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. He studied medicine and served in British Malaya as a physician for several years before taking up monasticism. He lived most part of his life near Muni Ki Reti, Rishikesh.
He was the founder of The Divine Life Society (1936), Yoga-Vedanta Forest Academy (1948) and author of over 200 books on yoga, Vedanta and a variety of subjects. He established Sivananda Ashram, the headquarters of The Divine Life Society (DLS), on the bank of the Ganges at Sivanandanagar, at a distance of 3 kilometres from Rishikesh.
Sivananda Yoga, the yoga form propagated by his disciple Swami Vishnudevananda, is now spread in many parts of the world through Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres. These centres are not affiliated with Sivānanda's ashrams, which are run by the Divine Life Society.
Wikipedia

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Sivananda-Book-Meditation-Yoga-Centre/dp/1856751244
The Sivananda Book of Meditation
Sivananda Yoga Centre
The Sivananda Book of Meditation
Paperback: 160 pages
Publisher: Gaia Books Ltd (9 July 2003)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1856751244
ISBN-13: 978-1856751247
Amazon

The same yogic “siddhi powers” in scientology are called “superpowers” which are attained at “Operating Thetan” levels (the highest stages of scientological “bridge to total freedom”). The founder of scientology L. Ron Hubbard coined an acronym MEST which stands for matter, energy, space and time, the component parts of the physical universe. Scientologists claim that by completing scientology courses, it is possible to eventually attain "cause over MEST" — the ability to control matter, energy and spacetime in the physical universe, free of the encumbrance of the body.
Scientological movies “Dianetics – A Visual Guidebook to the Mind” and “How to Use Dianetics” provide good instructions about dianetical procedures which were developed by the Church of Scientology. The purpose of dianetical procedures is to transfer data from “reactive mind” (== autonomous neuroclusters) into “analytical mind” (== neuroclusters which are under control of main personality). Scientological adept becomes “clear” when data is maximally transferred from “reactive mind” into “analytical mind”. In other words, despite scientologists never mention that (and most probably scientologists do not understand that), however reaching the state of “clear” is actually the reduction of intuition into minimum level. We will remind that the level of intuition is a measure of how much the main personality does not have the control over neuroclusters inside the brain. In “clear” state the scientological adept has minimum level of “intuition” – in other words in “clear” state the main personality has maximum control over neuroclusters. It is interesting to note, that after reaching the state of “clear” and going further up in “scientological bridge”, the process is totally reversed – in OT (“Operating Thetan”) levels the scientological adept learns how to artificially induce hallucinations in his own brain – gaining so called “superpowers” like telekinesis, teleportation, telepathy, etc – the higher the OT level the stronger the hallucinations – in every higher OT level the main personality loses more and more of the control over neuroclusters, in other words the level of intuition is increased when going up in OT levels.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clear_(Scientology)
Clear in Dianetics and Scientology is one of two levels a practitioner can achieve on the way to personal salvation. A state of Clear is reached when a person becomes free of the influence of engrams, unwanted emotions or painful traumas not readily available to the conscious mind. Scientologists believe that human beings accumulate anxieties, psychosomatic illnesses, and aberration due to receiving engrams throughout their lives. By applying dianetics, every single person can reach Clear.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_Thetan
In Scientology, Operating Thetan (OT) is a spiritual state above Clear. It is defined as "knowing and willing cause over life, thought, matter, energy, space and time (MEST)".<...>
Scientology doctrine defines OT as the "highest state there is". The OT is able to "control or operate thought, life, matter, energy, space, and time" whether he or she has a body and mind or not.<...>
After having removed one's own reactive mind and thus attaining the state of Clear, one may then go on to the OT levels.
Wikipedia

It is important to note that not all “miracles” are hallucinations inside own brain. There is another category of “miracles” – the elementary fraud.
For some documentary movies about revealed “miracles” please click here.

The food plays an important role in achieving the heights of the spirituality and for this reason special diets are recommended which disturb the equilibrium of biochemical reactions inside the brain which greatly helps to induce hallucinations, however the starvation is even more effective technique than special diets. It is important to note that short duration starvation will not carry the man into the “spiritual worlds” because the body will use the accumulated recourses to keep the equilibrium of brain’s biochemical reactions intact, and only long enough starvation will knock out the biochemical equilibrium when some of vital biochemical substances will be depleted.
Almost all spiritual gurus teach that in order to increase spirituality one needs to starve himself, and some spiritual gurus claim that 40 days of starvation without the food and water guarantees the entrance into the “spiritual worlds”. Long starvation disturbs the equilibrium of biochemical reactions inside the brain which result in the blockade of sensory input signals and invokes the dream simulator which carries a man into “spiritual worlds”.

http://www.exoticindiaart.com/product/paintings/yogi-attains-siddhi-OP89/
The Yogi Attains Siddhi
The Yogi Attains Siddhi. Illustration from Bhagavad-gītā As It Is.

It is well known fact in the medicine that long starvation induces hallucinations. Medicine has a huge number of documented facts about consequences of long starvation, as for example when a ship sailing the ocean becomes uncontrollable (engine breakdown, etc) and people in the ship are forced into the long starvation, then when such ship is found and rescued, then the people who are still alive and did not die from starvation – all such rescued people will ramble in hallucinatory visions.

http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/survival/wilderness/live-without-food-and-water1.htm
Advanced starvation will cause your organs to shut down one by one. People in the throes of severe starvation might experience the following:
   ● Hallucinations
   ● Convulsions
   ● Muscle spasms
   ● Irregular heartbeat
Charles W. Bryant. How long can you go without food and water?

http://www.survival-goods.com/v/9_Longest_Records_for_Surviving_without_Food/
Barry Horne (1998). Time Survived: 68 Days
<...> He began his third and last hunger strike in October 1998. On day 43 of his hunger strike he received the last rights and was placed in a “hunger strike cell”, fitted with just a cardboard chair and table. By day 66 he was hallucinating, deaf in one ear and blind in one eye; he could no longer remember why he was on hunger strike. After 68 days without food he ended his ordeal. 
9 Longest Records for Surviving without Food

Exactly the same working principle was used by American Indians. Indians had the ritual of initiation into the manhood which was mandatory for all Indian boys in order they become “true men”. The essence of the initiation ritual was the following. Indian boy must climb into the top of the mountain and he must sit there starving without food and without water day after day (which might take weeks) and he must wait until he will see the souls of the ancestors, and these souls of the ancestors must tell him his new manhood name. After the boy has met souls of the ancestors and after he has heard his new manhood name, he must climb down the mountain and tell his Indian tribe his new manhood name, and after that moment the boy becomes “true man”. However not all boys who climb on the top of the mountain meet the souls of the ancestors. Many boys starve themselves into the coma stage however the souls of the ancestors do not come to meet them. For that reason other Indians periodically climb to the mountain to check if the boy still has a consciousness or if he has fallen into the coma stage. If the boy is found in the coma stage, then he is brought back down from the mountain, revived, offered food and water and after some time the same procedure of climbing into the mountain is repeated again. The procedure is repeated the second time, the third time, etc – as many times as needed until the boy finally meets the souls of the ancestors and hears his new manhood name from these souls. Some boys who wanted to avoid this torturing ritual had cheated – after sitting several days on the top of mountain they climbed down and lied that they had met the souls of the ancestors and that these souls had told him his new manhood name. However this lie must had been kept a secret for the rest of the life, otherwise he would get death sentence for cheating in such an “important” ritual.

The founders of abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) also practiced long starvation which induced hallucinatory visions in which they met the God and other “spiritual beings”.
For example, the prophet Ezekiel starved himself without food and water for forty days and after these forty days of starvation in the cave he had began hearing the voice of the God.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+19&version=ESV
7 And the angel of the Lord came again a second time and touched him and said, “Arise and eat, for the journey is too great for you.”
8 And he arose and ate and drank, and went in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights to Horeb, the mount of God.

The Lord Speaks to Elijah
9 There he came to a cave and lodged in it. And behold, the word of the Lord came to him, and he said to him, “What are you doing here, Elijah?”
Bible. 1 Kings 19:7-9

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auditory_hallucination
Auditory hallucination
A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus. Auditory hallucinations need to be distinguished from endaural phenomena in which sounds are heard without any external acoustic stimulation but arise from disorders of the ear or auditory system.
A common form of auditory hallucination involves hearing one or more talking voices. This may be associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or mania, and holds special significance in diagnosing these conditions. However, individuals may hear voices without suffering from diagnosable mental illness.
There are three main categories into which the hearing of talking voices can often fall: a person hearing a voice speak one's thoughts, a person hearing one or more voices arguing, or a person hearing a voice narrating his/her own actions. These three categories do not account for all types of auditory hallucinations.
Other types of auditory hallucination include exploding head syndrome and musical ear syndrome. In the latter, people will hear music playing in their mind, usually songs they are familiar with. Reports have also mentioned that it is also possible to get musical hallucinations from listening to music for long periods of time. This can be caused by: lesions on the brain stem (often resulting from a stroke); also, sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, tumors, encephalitis, or abscesses. Other reasons include hearing loss and epileptic activity.
Wikipedia

Moses starved himself without food and water for forty days and after these forty days of starvation in artificially induced hallucinatory vision Moses received the Ten Commandments from the God (Bible. Exodus 34:28). It is very important to note that the most sacred object in all abrahamic religions – Ten Commandments of God – was the result of hallucinations which were artificially induced by forty days of starvation.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2034&version=ESV
27 And the Lord said to Moses, “Write these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”
28 So he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights. He neither ate bread nor drank water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.
29 When Moses came down from Mount Sinai, with the two tablets of the testimony in his hand as he came down from the mountain, Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because he had been talking with God.
30 Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses, and behold, the skin of his face shone, and they were afraid to come near him.
31 But Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the leaders of the congregation returned to him, and Moses talked with them.
32 Afterward all the people of Israel came near, and he commanded them all that the Lord had spoken with him in Mount Sinai.
33 And when Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face.
34 Whenever Moses went in before the Lord to speak with him, he would remove the veil, until he came out. And when he came out and told the people of Israel what he was commanded,
35 the people of Israel would see the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face was shining. And Moses would put the veil over his face again, until he went in to speak with him.
Bible. Exodus 34:27-35

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Deuteronomy+9&version=ESV
9 When I went up the mountain to receive the tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant that the Lord made with you, I remained on the mountain forty days and forty nights. I neither ate bread nor drank water.
Bible. Deuteronomy 9:9

After receiving the first set of the commandments, Moses smashed the stone tablets on the ground because he had found out that Israelites were engaged in a massive sin-fest. Moses then repeated his forty days of starvation procedure before ascending Mount Sinai the second time to receive the replacement set of the Ten Commandments.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Deuteronomy+9&version=ESV
18 Then I lay prostrate before the Lord as before, forty days and forty nights. I neither ate bread nor drank water, because of all the sin that you had committed, in doing what was evil in the sight of the Lord to provoke him to anger.
Bible. Deuteronomy 9:18

Jesus Christ also starved himself for forty days in the desert and after these forty days of starvation in artificially induced hallucinatory vision Jesus Christ met the Devil instead of the God (Bible. Matthew 4:2 and Luke 4:2).

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew%204&version=ESV
1 Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil.
2 And after fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry.
3 And the tempter came and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command these stones to become loaves of bread.”
4 But he answered, “It is written, “‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.’”
5 Then the devil took him to the holy city and set him on the pinnacle of the temple
6 and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, “‘He will command his angels concerning you,’ and “‘On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.’”
7 Jesus said to him, “Again it is written, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’”
8 Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory.
9 And he said to him, “All these I will give you, if you will fall down and worship me.”
10 Then Jesus said to him, “Be gone, Satan! For it is written, “‘You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve.’”
11 Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and were ministering to him.
Bible. Matthew 4:2

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke%204&version=ESV
1. And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness
2 for forty days, being tempted by the devil. And he ate nothing during those days. And when they were ended, he was hungry.
3 The devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread.”
4 And Jesus answered him, “It is written, ‘Man shall not live by bread alone.’”
5 And the devil took him up and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time,
6 and said to him, “To you I will give all this authority and their glory, for it has been delivered to me, and I give it to whom I will.
7 If you, then, will worship me, it will all be yours.”
8 And Jesus answered him, “It is written, “‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.’”
9 And he took him to Jerusalem and set him on the pinnacle of the temple and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here,
10 for it is written, “‘He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,’
11 and “‘On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.’”
12 And Jesus answered him, “It is said, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’”
13 And when the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from him until an opportune time.
Bible. Luke 4:2

It is interesting to note that Christians claim that “loss or lack of appetite” is the proof of the Holy Spirit, however at the same time Christians claim that “loss or lack of appetite” is the proof of demonic possession. In other words, exactly the same phenomenon (“loss or lack of appetite”) is used to prove the divinity and at the same time the same to prove the demonic possession – it is obvious that Christian dogmas have faulty logic.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exorcism_in_the_Catholic_Church
Signs of demonic invasion vary depending on the type of demon and its purpose, including:
<...>
1. Loss or lack of appetite
2. Cutting, scratching, and biting of skin
3. A cold feeling in the room
4. Unnatural bodily postures and change in the person's face and body
5. The possessed losing control of their normal personality and entering into a frenzy or rage, and/or attacking others
6. Change in the person's voice
7. Supernatural physical strength not subject to the person's build or age
8. Speaking or understanding another language which they had never learned before
9. Knowledge of things that are distant or hidden
10. Intense hatred and violent reaction toward all religious objects or items
11. Antipathy towards entering a church, speaking Jesus' name or hearing scripture.
Wikipedia

It is important to note one fundamental flaw in the dogmatism of all religions – the same exactly identical signs/features are claimed to be simultaneous proof of both: 1) the divinity and 2) the demonic possession.
As for example, the simultaneous proof of both the divinity and the demonic possession are phenomena of: stigmata (wounds on body), “the gift of prophecy”, “the gift of speaking tongues” (a.k.a. glossolalia, xenoglossy, xenoglossia, foreign accent syndrome), “the gift of the interpretation of tongues”, “the gift of the word of wisdom”, “the gift of the word of knowledge”, “the gift of the working of miracles”, and so on.
It is obvious that religious dogmatism has a complete lack of logical thinking.

http://www.ewtn.com/library/prayer/roman2.txt
Signs of possession may be the following: ability to speak with some facility in a strange tongue or to understand it when spoken by another; the faculty of divulging future and hidden events; <...>
The Roman Ritual (Latin: Rituale Romanum). Part XIII. Exorcism. Chapter I: General Rules Concerning Exorcism.
Translated by Philip T. Weller, S.T.D. 1964

Please click here to read more about faulty logic in religious dogmas which claim that the same exactly identical signs/features are simultaneous proof of both the divinity and the demonic possession.

Another effective technique is the holotropic breathwork which invokes “siddhi” powers like past life recall, etc. What is the physiological mechanism of the holotropic breathwork? During the holotropic breathwork the lungs are hyperventilated and as the result the concentration of oxygen (O2) is increased in the blood and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is decreased. The normal concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood is approximately 6% and during the hyperventilation the concentration of CO2 decreases. When CO2 concentration in the blood drops to 3.5% then this condition is called “hypocapnia”. Hypocapnia causes cerebral vasoconstriction, leading to cerebral hypoxia and this can cause dizziness and induce hallucinations. If hypocapnia is increased even more then this leads to the blackout. The essence of holotropic breathwork technique is to keep CO2 concentration in the blood at such level which is sufficient to induce hallucinations however the man still has not fallen into the blackout. Holotropic breathwork technique allows a man to travel into the “spiritual worlds”, allows talking to Gods (Jesus, Krishna, Vishnu, etc), past life recall, etc.
Other important techniques for achieving “spiritual heights” are various special physical exercises, as for example various yogic physical exercises which deform and strangulate veins/ lymphatic vessels/etc (by putting legs on the head, etc) and as a result disturb the equilibrium of biochemical reactions inside the brain in the similar way like holotropic breathwork technique thus invoking spiritual experiences, like “traveling into the spiritual worlds”, etc.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypocapnia
Hypocapnia or hypocapnea also known as hypocarbia, sometimes incorrectly called acapnia, is a state of reduced carbon dioxide in the blood. Hypocapnia usually results from deep or rapid breathing, known as hyperventilation.
Hypocapnia is the opposite of hypercapnia.

Effects
Even when marked, hypocapnia is normally well tolerated. However, hypocapnia causes cerebral vasoconstriction, leading to cerebral hypoxia and this can cause transient dizziness, visual disturbances, and anxiety. A low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood also causes alkalosis (because CO2 is acidic in solution), leading to lowered plasma calcium ions and increased nerve and muscle excitability. This explains the other common symptoms of hyperventilation — pins and needles, muscle cramps and tetany in the extremities, especially hands and feet.
Because the brain stem regulates breathing by monitoring the level of blood CO2, hypocapnia can suppress breathing to the point of blackout from cerebral hypoxia.

Causes
Hypocapnia is sometimes induced in the treatment of medical emergencies such as intracranial hypertension and hyperkalaemia.
Self-induced hypocapnia through hyperventilation is the basis for the dangerous schoolyard fainting game. Deliberate hyperventilation has been used by underwater breath-hold divers for the purpose of extending dive time as it effectively reduces respiratory drive due to low CO2 levels allowing one to break one's standard limit of breath holding at the risk of shallow water blackout (which is a significant cause of drowning) as while air hunger is reduced the oxygen levels are not increased, in fact hypocapnia reduces the oxygen levels available to the brain due to the elevated affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin (bohr effect) hence highly increasing the chances of blackout.
Wikipedia

http://networkmagazine.ie/articles/news-upcoming-holotropic-breathwork-dunderry-park
<...> "Holotropic" means moving towards wholeness, Holotropic Breathwork was created by Stan and Christina Grof by combining ancient holistic healing techniques from around the world, such as yogic breathing practices, sound, sacred music, chanting, drumming, and body oriented psychotherapy.
The Holotropic experience focuses on creating a non ordinary state of consciousness to give participants access to a deeper experience of themselves, helping them transcend the limits of ordinary consciousness and invoke the inner healer, therefore helping to heal deep seated issues within the body/mind and connecting to profound spiritual experiences. During a session people can access traumatic events from their past that are hindering them from living a fulfilling life in the present. Symptoms such as depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, heartache and loss have their origins in our unconscious mind.
Holotropic Breathwork helps bring these unexperienced experiences to the surface and by making the unknown known through expressing the strong emotions locked into the body/mind the person is healed in a deep and profound way, which often leads to a profound transformation in their daily lives. Typically the healing experiences can range from reliving birth trauma, clearing childhood hurts and alleviating physical ailments. Other Holotropic experiences can include Transpersonal encounters that are beyond the personal everyday ego awareness, such as transcendence of physical space and time, contact with other life forms, past life or synchronistic experiences and contact with archetypes or mythological realms.
Holotropic Breathwork
Upcoming Holotropic Breathwork at Dunderry Park. July 8, 2013

Religious adepts claim that prayers/meditation can heal illnesses. Let’s analyze what is the physiological underlying mechanism of such healing. It is well known fact in the medicine that many illnesses have psychosomatic origin. We will explain more detailed. Organism consists of many cells. Every living cell exchanges matter with its surroundings: nutritive/building materials come into the cell and cellular waste products must be carried out of the cell. When cellular exchange of matter is well-run then organism is healthy. However when cellular exchange of matter is disturbed then organism becomes ill with some illness. There are many ways to disturb cellular exchange of matter, as for example by physically damaging the organism or when nourishing blood vessel is clogged up by some physical object, etc. One other way to disturb cellular exchange of matter is psychosomatic. What does it mean? The underlying mechanism is very simple. Human brain controls muscles/organs by sending “commands” via nerves. These “commands” which are sent by the brain might become damaging to the organism – as for example due to stress (or some other reasons) a muscle might become permanently spasmodically contracted which leads to strangling of some blood-vessel or lymphatic vessel which leads to the disturbance of cellular matter exchange and organ/organism becomes ill with some illness. In other words, the cause of the illness is the damaging “commands” send by the brain to the organism. What is the solution of this problem? The solution is very simple. All you need to do is to eliminate the broadcasting of damaging “commands” to the organism which is achieved by bringing human brain into vegetable-like state which is achieved by meditation, religious prayers, atheistic autogenic training, etc. When brain is brought into vegetable-like state by meditation/prayers/etc then brain stops broadcasting damaging “commands” to the organism and as the result organ/organism starts to heal.
It is important to note that using meditation/prayers it is possible to heal only the illnesses of psychosomatic origin. However if the illness is not of the psychosomatic origin then meditation/prayers will fail to heal such illness. As for example, if a man has his arm/leg amputated then meditation/prayers will be unable to grow back arm/leg for that man.

People who have returned from astral journeys claim that they have seen sightings and they have heard sounds during astral journeys. It is important to note one important feature in all these reports – the sightings and sounds have exactly the same characteristics as if they were seen with physical eyes and were heard with physical ears. However, physical eyes can see electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths from about 390 to 700 nm (visible spectrum range), and physical ears can hear frequencies from 20 to 20,000 Hz (hearing range). If the range of visible spectrum is changed even slightly then the appearance of the world becomes almost unrecognizable. Below are some example images which show how the world looks in the infrared range.

http://bayswater.ca/2010/02/i-see-your-pain/
Infrared thermal image
Infrared thermal image

http://www.infraredcamerasinc.com/Medical-Imaging-Photo-Gallery/Medical-Thermal-Imaging-Photo-Gallery.html
Infrared thermal image
Infrared thermal image

http://www.m3inspect.com/thermal_imaging.html
Infrared thermal image
Infrared thermal image

http://www.govtech.com/technology/Drive-By-Thermal-Imaging-Quantifies-Energy-Loss.html
Infrared thermal image
Infrared thermal image

http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2012/06/start/infrareds-walk-on-the-wild-side
Infrared thermal image
Infrared thermal image

However there are no reports whatsoever from astral travelers about seeing the world in other spectrum range or hearing sounds in other frequency range. It is pretty obvious that it is impossible to fail to notice such thing as the change of visible spectrum range because the view of the world would change drastically. All astral travelers always see the world in the same spectrum range as if they would see it using physical eyes.
This raises very simple question: how it can be that the soul sees and hears exactly in the same spectrum range if the soul is made up from different substance than the physical body? The only scenario when “astral eyes” could see the images exactly in the same spectrum range is when “astral eyes” would have exactly the same construction as physical eyes. It is enough even to slightly change the parameters of eye’s composing parts and the seen images would immediately slide to other spectrum range. In order “astral eye” could see the identical image which is seen by the physical eye, the “astral eye” should have exactly the same identical pupil, it must react exactly to the same identical electromagnetic spectrum of light, etc.
However, if “astral eye” would begin to register visible spectrum range frequencies then such “astral eye” would interact with photons of visible spectrum range and automatically such “astral eye” would become visible by physical eyes. Invisible “astral eye” cannot see visible spectrum range which we see. If the soul and “astral eye” are invisible to our physical eyes then the soul cannot see the world in the same spectrum range as our physical eyes see. In best case scenario, invisible “astral eye” can see the world only in the spectrum range which is invisible to our physical eyes (like x-rays spectrum or something like that). The spectrum range seen by physical and astral eyes must be completely different and cannot be the same. Which means that world seen by physical and astral eyes must be two completely different things. This is elementary physics.
However astral travelers report that they are seeing the world in exactly the same spectrum range as seen with physical eyes and this fact is a very strong proof that all these astral journeys happen simply in the virtual world modeled and simulated inside the brain of the astral traveler and these virtual worlds are quite good copies of the physical world.

Adepts of Hindu and tantric/yogic traditions claim that human has subtle body which has chakras – energy points or knots in the subtle body.
However other esoteric schools claim that the structure of human’s subtle body is completely different and without any chakras. As for example, the adepts of Carlos Castañeda (who proclaimed himself as the follower of Southern Mexico Toltec shamanic tradition) claim that human’s subtle body has the structure of “luminous energy egg” which has “assemblage point”.
It is important to note that neither chakras nor luminous energy egg can be seen by physical eyes and also there is no equipment which would be able to register the existence of chakras or luminous energy egg.
The only possible way to see chakras or luminous energy egg is by entering into “spiritual world”.
It is important to note that when adepts of Hindu and tantric/yogic traditions enter the “spiritual world” they never see luminous energy egg which has assemblage point, they see only chakras, and vice versa – when adepts of Carlos Castañeda enter the “spiritual world” they never see chakras, they see only luminous energy egg which has assemblage point. It is quite obvious that the same human cannot have two completely different incompatible structures of the subtle body.
If the object cannot be registered by physical senses and if there is no equipment which is able to register the existence of the object then such object perfectly matches the definition of “hallucination” – hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus.
In other words, both chakras and luminous energy egg perfectly match the definition of “hallucination”.
The experience inside “spiritual world” is governed by fundamental law: the apriori belief system of the man fully determines and defines what kind of objects that man will see inside “spiritual world”. If a man apriori believes that astral (silver) cord exists then such man will see astral cord when being in “spiritual world”. If a man apriori believes that chakras exist then such man will see chakras when being in “spiritual world”. If a man apriori believes that luminous energy egg which has assemblage point exists then such man will see luminous energy egg with has assemblage point when being in “spiritual world”. And so on.
Hallucinations are experienced not only by humans, but also by other animals too – one good proof for that are dogs whose master has died some time ago, such dogs sometimes stare into the empty space and begin acting exactly in the same unique way as if his master has come to visit him – at such moments religious adepts believe that the dog sees the ghost of his dead master who has come to visit the dog – the reality is that the dog sees hallucinatory image of his dead master which is generated inside the dog’s brain.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallucination
A hallucination, in the broadest sense of the word, is a perception in the absence of a stimulus. In a stricter sense, hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. The latter definition distinguishes hallucinations from the related phenomena of dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, but is not under voluntary control. Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus (i.e. a real perception) is given some additional (and typically bizarre) significance.
Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality — visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive.
Wikipedia

http://www.onlinemeditation.org/images/complete-chakra-chart.jpg
Complete chakra chart
Complete chakra chart according to Hindu and tantric/yogic traditions

http://www.theshiftofconsciousness.info/castaneda.html
Luminous Energy Eggs of Human

Luminous Energy Eggs of Human
Luminous Energy Eggs of a Human according to Southern Mexico Toltec shamanic tradition


Religious adepts claim that a man born blind gains the ability to see when entering NDE (Near-Death Experience) or OOBE (Out-of-Body-Experience). One example of such claim is provided below.

http://kernz.org/nd/nde-papers/Ring/Ring-Journal%20of%20Near-Death%20Studies_1997-16-101-147-1.pdf
Near-Death and Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind: A Study of Apparent Eyeless Vision
Kenneth Ring, Ph.D. Sharon Cooper, M.A. University of Connecticut
Abstract: This article reports the results of an investigation into near-death and out-of-body experiences in 31 blind respondents. The study sought to address three main questions: (1) whether blind individuals have near-death experiences (NDEs) and, if so, whether they are the same as or different from those of sighted persons; (2) whether blind persons ever claim to see during NDEs and out-of-body experiences (OBEs); and (3) if such claims are made, whether they can ever be corroborated by reference to in-dependent evidence. Our findings revealed that blind persons, including those blind from birth, do report classic NDEs of the kind common to sighted persons; that the great preponderance of blind persons claim to see during NDEs and OBEs; and that occasionally claims of visually-based knowledge that could not have been obtained by normal means can be independently corroborated. We present and evaluate various explanations of these findings before arriving at an interpretation based on the concept of transcendental awareness. <….>
Conclusion
<…> The story of Sarah implied that she really could see during her NDE, in the way that a sighted person might.
Journal of Near-Death Studies

There are many documented cases when surgery has restored the ability of seeing in born blind adult patients. In all such cases after the recovery from blindness the patients were unable to recognize any object (as for example, were unable to distinguish a spoon from a horse, a square from circle, etc) and only after long training such man hardly learns to recognize some objects (not all objects, but only some classes of objects). In many cases such patients never learn to recognize visual objects and restored seeing is only a hindrance for a patient because main personality is irritated by signals coming from the eyes and these signals cannot be usefully processed, so these patients simply put on black glasses and continue to live fully blind life to which they are already used to.
Religious adepts claim that when a man born blind enters NDE/OOBE he gains the ability see and in an instant moment he can recognize objects, however such claims can be easily proved to be wrong by using born blind patients who recovered from blindness using surgery – these patients do see, however they are unable to recognize any visual object. Thus all reports which claim that born blind man was able to see and instantly recognize trees/table/etc in NDE/OOBE contradict medical facts. Ability of seeing and ability of recognizing objects are two separate unrelated things. In order to clarify the idea we will provide an analogy. Suppose you hear a man speaking some unknown foreign language – in this case you are able to hear sounds, however you are unable to recognize any word in continuous speech, for you the continuous speech will be equivalent to a simple noise. Exactly same situation is with born blind patients – recovery from blindness simply flushes the main personality with visual noise and none of the visual objects can be recognized and identified.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recovery_from_blindness
Recovery from blindness is the phenomenon of a blind person gaining the ability to see, usually as a result of medical treatment. As a thought experiment, the phenomenon is usually referred to as Molyneux's Problem. The first published human case was reported in 1728 by the Surgeon William Cheselden. Patients who experience dramatic recovery from blindness experience significant to total Agnosia, having serious confusion with their visual perception. <...>
In 1974, Richard Gregory described a patient, Sidney Bradford, a 52-year-old who gained vision from corneal grafts to both eyes. <...> Before surgery Bradford was a machinist, but even after acquiring vision preferred working with his eyes closed to identify tools.
Wikipedia

Religious adepts claim that flat EEG during NDE (Near-Death Experience) proves that the person was completely dead during NDE experience, however such claim is not true. The truth is that EEG is unable to register the electric potentials generated by an individual neurons, EEG is able to register only the synchronous activity of thousands of neurons. If EEG is flat then it does not mean that all neurons are “silent” and “dead”. To clarify the idea we will provide the analogy. Suppose you are walking nearby a football stadium (during a match) in which thousands of football fans synchronously loudly chant the name of their supported team – you can hear this chanting even being far away from the stadium. However if football fans do not synchronously chant loudly then you will be unable to hear what two men are talking to each other sitting in nearby seats in the stadium. Exactly the same situation is with EEG. When heart beating and breathing stops, the brain is transferred into energy saving mode and all non-vital zones of the brain are shut down saving the last resources for the neurocluster of main personality, which immediately is thrown into “spiritual worlds” (into the virtual worlds modeled by the brain). Huge zones of the brain are devoted for processing information coming from sensory organs (extracting invariant features), as for example in order to recognize visual stimulus (as for example the figure of some deity/angel/etc) coming from the physical eyes millions of neurons must do information processing and this neural activity can be registered with EEG. However when being in “spiritual world” the deity/angel/etc is modeled by relatively small number of neurons and EEG is unable to register this neural activity, EEG will be flat despite the fact that at the same time main personality is communicating with deity/angel/etc in “spiritual world”. This is elementary physics and neurobiology. The main personality can have extensive “spiritual experience” during flat EEG. When a man is in coma stage and if you will put microelectrodes into single neurons then you will be able to register neural spikes in single neurons even when EEG is flat. Neurons stop firing spikes only when they are physically damaged or destroyed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroencephalography
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus on the spectral content of EEG, that is, the type of neural oscillations that can be observed in EEG signals.
<...>
Source of EEG activity
The brain's electrical charge is maintained by billions of neurons. Neurons are electrically charged (or "polarized") by membrane transport proteins that pump ions across their membranes. Neurons are constantly exchanging ions with the extracellular milieu, for example to maintain resting potential and to propagate action potentials. Ions of similar charge repel each other, and when many ions are pushed out of many neurons at the same time, they can push their neighbours, who push their neighbours, and so on, in a wave. This process is known as volume conduction. When the wave of ions reaches the electrodes on the scalp, they can push or pull electrons on the metal on the electrodes. Since metal conducts the push and pull of electrons easily, the difference in push or pull voltages between any two electrodes can be measured by a voltmeter. Recording these voltages over time gives us the EEG.
The electric potential generated by an individual neuron is far too small to be picked up by EEG or MEG. EEG activity therefore always reflects the summation of the synchronous activity of thousands or millions of neurons that have similar spatial orientation. If the cells do not have similar spatial orientation, their ions do not line up and create waves to be detected. Pyramidal neurons of the cortex are thought to produce the most EEG signal because they are well-aligned and fire together. Because voltage fields fall off with the square of distance, activity from deep sources is more difficult to detect than currents near the skull.
Scalp EEG activity shows oscillations at a variety of frequencies. Several of these oscillations have characteristic frequency ranges, spatial distributions and are associated with different states of brain functioning (e.g., waking and the various sleep stages). These oscillations represent synchronized activity over a network of neurons. The neuronal networks underlying some of these oscillations are understood (e.g., the thalamocortical resonance underlying sleep spindles), while many others are not (e.g., the system that generates the posterior basic rhythm). Research that measures both EEG and neuron spiking finds the relationship between the two is complex, with a combination of EEG power in the gamma band and phase in the delta band relating most strongly to neuron spike activity.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_death
Note that brain electrical activity can stop completely, or drop to such a low level as to be undetectable with most equipment. An EEG will therefore be flat, though this is sometimes also observed during deep anesthesia or cardiac arrest. Although in the United States a flat EEG test is not required to certify death, it is considered to have confirmatory value. In the UK it is not considered to be of value because any continuing activity it might reveal in parts of the brain above the brain stem is held to be irrelevant to the diagnosis of death on the Code of Practice criteria.
Wikipedia

Christians claim that Jesus resurrected from the dead and this proves the divinity. However Jesus resurrected from the coma stage, not from the dead. The word “coma” is never mentioned in Bible despite the fact that many people were experiencing coma stage in biblical times. The word “coma” was hardly used in the known literature up to the middle of the 17th century. The people who surrounded Jesus did not know about coma stage and at these times all people in coma stage were considered as dead. Simply nearby Jesus there were no qualified persons to diagnose the coma stage, so the coma stage was misdiagnosed as the death. Resurrection from the coma stage is not a miracle at all. Thousands of people around the world resurrect from the coma stage every day.

http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/131/3/877.full.pdf
The term ‘coma’, from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep, had already been used in the Hippocratic corpus (Epidemica) and later by Galen (second century AD). Subsequently, it was hardly used in the known literature up to the middle of the 17th century. The term is found again in Thomas Willis’ (1621–75) influential De anima brutorum (1672), where lethargy (pathological sleep, which he localized in the outer cortex), ‘coma’ (heavy sleeping), carus (deprivation of the senses) and apoplexy (into which carus could turn and which he localized in the white matter) are mentioned, the sequence indicating increasingly deeper forms of unresponsiveness. The term carus is also derived from Greek, where it can be found in the roots of several words meaning soporific or sleepy. It can still be found in the root of the term carotid’. Thomas Sydenham (1624–89) mentioned the term ‘coma’ in several cases of fever (Sydenham, 1685). Partly due to the methodology we applied, apoplexy and stroke are causes often encountered. Trauma has always been known as a cause and an example is found in Tulp’s Observationes Medicae (Tulp, 1641). Before the 19th century, physical examination, next to bservation, was largely confined to palpating the pulse and to inspection of urine, faeces, sputum and pus (Bynum and Porter, 1994). In this period, observations on arousal to sensory stimuli (shouting, pinching, applying stimuli to the nostrils), movements and breathing were described. Johann Jakob Wepfer (1620–95) mentioned a full and strong pulse that became weak, small and frequent (Wepfer, 1932).
Historical study of coma: looking back through medical and neurological texts. Peter J. Koehler1 and Eelco F. M.Wijdicks. Brain (2008), 131, p. 877-889

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coma#Diagnostic_steps
In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a state of unconsciousness, lasting more than six hours in which a person cannot be awakened, fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, sound, lacks a normal sleep-wake cycle and does not initiate voluntary actions. <...>
Diagnostic steps
When an unconscious patient enters a hospital, the hospital utilizes a series of diagnostic steps to identify the cause of unconsciousness. According to Young, the following steps should be taken when dealing with a patient possibly in a coma:
1. Perform a general examination and medical history check
2. Make sure patient is in an actual comatose state and is not mistaken for locked-in state (patient will either be able to voluntarily move his eyes or blink) or psychogenic unresponsiveness (caloric stimulation of the vestibular apparatus will result in slow deviation of eyes towards the stimulation followed by rapid correction to mid-line; this response can't be voluntarily suppressed: therefore, if the patient doesn't have this response, then psychogenic coma can be ruled out as a differential)
3. Find the site of the brain that may be causing coma (i.e. brain stem, back of brain…) and assess the severity of the coma with the Glasgow coma scale
4. Take blood work to see if drugs were involved or if it was a result of hypoventilation/hyperventilation
5. Check for levels of “serum glucose, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphate, urea, and creatinine”
6. Perform brain scans to observe any abnormal brain functioning using either CT or MRI scans
7. Continue to monitor brain waves and identify seizures of patient using EEGs
Wikipedia

Many Christians disagree with the fact that Jesus was in the coma state – these Christians claim that the heart of Jesus was pierced and no human can survive the piercing of the heart, only God can survive the piercing of the heart. It is important to note that the Bible text does not tell anything about piercing of the heart of Jesus. The Bible text tells that the side of Jesus was pierced (John 19, 34), however the “side” is not equivalent to “heart”.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John+19&version=ESV
34 But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water.
Bible. John 19:34

Due to the lack of medical knowledge the Christians naively believe that piercing of the heart somehow proves the divinity of Jesus, Christians naively believe that no mortal human can survive the piercing of the heart. However this is not true. There are many documented cases where the people have survived the piercing of the heart and this fact disproves the claim of Christians that piercing of the heart supposedly proves the divinity. Mortal people can survive the piercing of the heart too, the divinity is not needed.
And by the way, it is interesting to note, that in many churches the statues of Jesus have the wound of piercing on the wrong side – the wound of piercing is on right side of Jesus, not on left side of Jesus, which contradicts their own claims that Jesus was pierced into the heart.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-17641494
US man survives shooting four-inch nail into his heart
BBC, 6 April 2012
http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=95201&page=1#.UArUL2Ee45s
Girl Stabbed Through Heart Survives
ABC News, Oct. 29
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,590370,00.html
Man Survives After 2-Inch Nail Pierces Heart
Fox News, April 02, 2010
http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1696&dat=19840416&id=qWw0AAAAIBAJ&sjid=B5gEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6550,3969528
Hear Piecing Survived
Daily News, April 16, 1984
http://articles.latimes.com/1991-05-19/news/mn-2980_1_survives-heart-surgery
Boy Survives After Being Spiked Through Heart : Medicine: Surgeon calls his survival 'one in a billion.' The child asked to play Nintendo after awakening from surgery.
By Arthur H. Rotstein
Associated Press, Los Angeles Times, May 19, 1991
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-16/mumbai/28374639_1_rare-operation-stab-abdomen
Miraculous recovery for man with knife in heart
By Sumitra Deb Roy, TNN
The Times of India, Jan 16, 2011

When a man is in “astral worlds” then the brain blocks the movement of the physical body, however the control of 1) the breathing, 2) eye movement and 3) tongue movement stay intact thus every action done with “astral” eyes/tongue/ breathing is perfectly mirrored in physical body. Which means, that when a man is in the “astral world” he can still send signals to physical world using his eyes/tongue movements and breathing – all you need to do is to arrange in advance the communication codes (as for example Morse code could be used) to transfer meaningful information into physical world thus proving that a man has awareness when his physical body is immobile.

Religious adepts claim that OOBE is the highest level of “astral traveling”. During OOBE the soul leaves physical body and sees physical body from aside and flies through the walls.
However in reality OOBE is not the highest level of “astral traveling”. And here is the explanation why it is so.
All “astral” phenomena which have different names and which look like different unrelated phenomena (simple dreaming, lucid dreaming, OOBE, NDE, etc) actually are various manifestations of the same identical phenomenon. The best proof for that is the fact, that very often these “different unrelated phenomena” gradually morph one into another, as for example at first man sees simple dream which gradually morphs into OOBE and then OOBE gradually morphs back into simple dream and so on.
“Astral” phenomena which have different names and which look like different unrelated phenomena (simple dreaming, lucid dreaming, OOBE, NDE, etc) differ from each other only by the degree of realism of the world which man sees and also by the degree of clarity of perception while he is inside that “spiritual world”. When the seen world differs very strongly from real physical world and when clarity of perception is very low (like being drunk from alcohol) then we have a simple dream. The more features of seen world come closer to features of real physical world and the higher the clarity of perception – the higher the level of “astral travel”.
Lucid dreaming is higher level than simple dream, because clarity of perception is higher than in simple dream. OOBE is higher level than lucid dreaming because in OOBE the seen world quite closely resembles real physical world while in lucid dream a man travels in fictitious non-existing worlds. However there are several important differences between OOBE world and real physical world. In OOBE world the man can fly in the air, man can fly through the walls, man can see his physical body from aside, etc – in other words the physical laws of real world are modeled with bugs, unrealistically.
However much higher level than OOBE is the state of “false awakening”. “False awakening” is the state when a man thinks that he has waken up and he accomplishes his daily morning rituals (like washing, cooking, going to school/work, etc) and a man is completely sure that he is in real physical world because all physical laws are modeled 100 percent perfectly. When a man is in OOBE state he can easily recognize that he is in OOBE state because physical laws are modeled with bugs – in OOBE state he can fly through the walls, he can see his physical body from aside, etc – thus he can easily recognize that he is not in real physical world. However in “false awakening” state he has absolutely no clues and no chances to recognize that he is not in real physical world, because he cannot fly through the walls, he cannot see his body from aside, etc – all physical laws are modeled much more realistically than in OOBE case – and it is impossible for him to detect that he is not in real physical world. And he can discover that it was “false awakening” only when the alarm clock rings, he wakes up and discovers that he is still lying in bed while theoretically he should be already in school/work/etc because theoretically he had waken up long time ago and had done all daily morning rituals already.
In other words, seeing own physical body from aside and flying through walls is a bug of modeling in the brain and this bug enables easily recognize that you are not in real physical world. However “false awakening” state is a result of much better quality modeling inside the brain which has no modeling bugs and is absolutely indistinguishable from real physical world, like in the movie “The Matrix”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_awakening
A false awakening is a vivid and convincing dream about awakening from sleep, while the dreamer in reality continues to sleep. After a false awakening, subjects often dream they are performing daily morning rituals such as cooking, cleaning and eating. A subset of false awakenings, namely those in which one dreams that one has awoken from sleep that featured dreams, take on aspects of a double dream or a dream within a dream. This may be one of the causes of bed wetting, since the affected person may believe they are using a toilet.
Wikipedia

Many religious adepts claim that you can easily recognize that you are inside “astral world” by looking into the mirror – if the mirror shows nothing or distorted reflection then you can know that you are in “astral world”, and if the mirror shows undistorted good reflection then you can know that you are in real physical world. However this “mirror test” in reality is completely unreliable, because mirror reflection is missing or distorted only when a man’s brain is unable to model the correct reflected image, however if man’s brain is capable to model correct reflected image then such man will see perfect reflected mirror image when being inside “astral world” – it all depends on modeling capabilities of a particular man. The are many people who see perfect reflected mirror images while being in dream thus “mirror test” is totally non-working test for such people. The movie “Inception” also has the similar error – according to the movie a spinning tractricoid was reliable testing technique – should he spin the top and it topples over, he is awake; if it continues to spin, then he is still dreaming. However in reality such test of “spinning tractricoid” is totally unreliable – the brain of the sleeper might have no problem at all to model the spinning tractricoid which will topple over just the same as in real physical world.

Sleepwalking (a.k.a. somnambulism or noctambulism) is a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family. Medical reports show that approximately 18 percent of the population is prone to sleepwalking, however only 1 percent of the population experiences sleepwalking events regularly. Every tenth man knows at least one sleepwalking event during his lifetime. During sleepwalking event a man rises from bed and walks however his level of consciousness, reaction and motors skills are low. Sleepwalkers perform activities that are usually performed during a state of full consciousness. Sleepwalker returns to the bed himself or with the mild help of others. During sleepwalking event the sleepwalker can accomplish simple actions like sitting up in the bed, walking to the bathroom, and cleaning, however sleepwalker’s actions can be also as complicated and as hazardous as cooking, driving, violent gestures, grabbing at hallucinated objects, having sex, or even homicide. Sleepwalkers can even leave the home, drive the car, go up to the roof and walk on the roof like a cat, etc. Sleepwalking may last as little as 30 seconds or as long as 30 minutes, and in some rare cases may last several hours. Sleepwalker reacts very weakly when other people try to influence his action or when they try to communicate with the sleepwalker and huge endeavors are needed to wake up the sleepwalker. When sleepwalker is asked something, he responds with unarticulated murmur or answers with one word. Sleepwalker often have little or no memory of the dangerous incidents in which he has been involved (like a fire, being buried alive, being chased on the roof, etc) because their consciousness has altered into a state in which it is harder to recall memories. Although their eyes are open, their expression is dim and glazed over. In many countries sleepwalkers are not allowed into the military service because during sleepwalking event they can misuse the weapons and other military equipment. A common misconception is that the sleepwalker cannot harm himself. In the reality sleepwalkers do harm themselves due the lack of agility and the lack of the balance. Another common misconception is that sleepwalkers are not dangerous to anyone, however there many cases reported in which sleepwalkers were involved violent actions, even murders, and after waking up they did not remember anything.

In the “folk wisdom” there is huge number of sleepwalking cases, however due to the ignorance of the brain physiology the sleepwalking cases are mystified, like for example when the sleepwalker leaves his home, goes to neighbor’s house and steals various objects (gold/silver jewelry, paper money, firewood, grains, apples, etc) and brings back to his home these stolen items – the “folk wisdom” considers that
Aitvaras/Pūķis/Hännamees/Kratt/etc
has brought these items to his master.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aitvaras
Aitvaras is a household spirit in Lithuanian mythology. Other names are Kaukas, Pūkis, Damavykas, Sparyžius, Koklikas, Gausinėlis, Žaltvikšas, and Spirukas. Aitvaras is identical to the Latvian Pūkis.
<...>
An Aitvaras will lodge itself in a house and will most often refuse to leave. It brings both good and bad luck to the inhabitants of the house. Aitvaras provide their adopted home with stolen gold and grain, often getting the household into trouble.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latvian_mythology
pūķis (dragon) – a fiery being who would steal grain and other riches and bring them to its owner. It would be red when "empty" and blue when "full" of riches. He would be kept in a separate room that would be kept very clean, where nobody could enter without the owner's permission. Pūķis would be fed the first bit of every meal. If pūķis felt that he was not revered enough he would turn on the owner and burn the house down.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_mythology
Estonian mythological and literary mythological beings, deities and legendary heroes
<...>
Hännamees – a demon who stole and brought food, money and other worldly goods to its maker and owner.
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Kratt – a demon who stole and brought food, money and other worldly goods to its maker and owner in the form of a whirlwind or meteor-like tail of fire (also called pisuhänd, tulihänd, hännamees).
Wikipedia

When the sleepwalker accomplishes household chores (washes dishes, shaves potatoes, etc) – the “folk wisdom” considers that the
domovoi/brownie/brounie/urisk/brùnaidh/ùruisg/gruagach/kobold/hob/ev iyesi/tomte/nisse/tomtenisse/kabouter/etc
has done that household chore and so on.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownie_(folklore)
A brownie/brounie or urisk (Lowland Scots) or brùnaidh, ùruisg, or gruagach (Scottish Gaelic) is a legendary creature popular in folklore around Scotland and England (especially the north, though more commonly hobs have this role). It is the Scottish and Northern English counterpart of the Scandinavian tomte, the Slavic domovoi and the German Heinzelmännchen.

Traditio
In folklore, a brownie resembles the hob, similar to a hobgoblin. Brownies are said to inhabit houses and aid in tasks around the house. However, they do not like to be seen and will only work at night, traditionally in exchange for small gifts of food. Among food, they especially enjoy porridge and honey. They usually abandon the house if their gifts are called payments, or if the owners of the house misuse them. Brownies make their homes in an unused part of the house, often in attics and holes in walls.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kobold
The kobold (occasionally cobold) is a sprite stemming from Germanic mythology and surviving into modern times in German folklore.
Although usually invisible, a kobold can materialize in the form of an animal, fire, a human being, and a candle. The most common depictions of kobolds show them as humanlike figures the size of small children. Kobolds who live in human homes wear the clothing of peasants; those who live in mines are hunched and ugly; and kobolds who live on ships smoke pipes and wear sailor clothing.
Legends tell of three major types of kobolds. Most commonly, the creatures are house spirits of ambivalent nature; while they sometimes perform domestic chores, they play malicious tricks if insulted or neglected.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hob_(folklore)
A hob is a type of small mythological household spirit found in the north and midlands of England, but especially on the Anglo-Scottish border, according to traditional folklore of those regions. They could live inside the house or outdoors. They are said to work in farmyards and thus could be helpful, however if offended they could become nuisances. The usual way to dispose of a hob was to give them a set of new clothing, the receiving of which would make the creature leave forever. It could however be impossible to get rid of the worst hobs.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinzelmännchen
The Heinzelmännchen are a race of creatures appearing in a tale connected with the city of Cologne in Germany.
The little house gnomes are said to have done all the work of the citizens of Cologne during the night, so that the inhabitants of Cologne could be very lazy during the day. According to the legend, this went on until a tailor's wife got so curious to see the gnomes that she scattered peas onto the floor of the workshop to make the gnomes slip and fall. The gnomes, being infuriated, disappeared and never returned. From that time on, the citizens of Cologne had to do all their work by themselves.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ev_iyesi
Ev iyesi (Tatar: Öy İyäse or Öy Atası sometimes Өй бәкчәсе "House Guard") is a household deity in Turkish mythology. Also known as Uy (Oy) iyesi or Yurt iyesi.
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In Turkish Folklore
Traditionally, every house is said to have its iye. The word "iye" means owner, master, possessor... It does not do evil unless angered by a family’s poor keep of the household, profane language or neglect. He is seen as the home's guardian, and he sometimes helps with household chores and field work. Some even treat them as part of the family, albeit an unseen one, and leave them gifts like milk in the kitchen overnight. It is said the favorite place for these spirits to live is either the threshold under the door or under the stove. The center of the house is also said to be their domain. Ev İyesi maintains peace and order, and rewards a well-maintained household. Some peasants feed him nightly in return for protection of their house. When a new house was built, Anatolian people would attract the İye take to new house.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomte
A tomte, nisse or tomtenisse (Sweden) (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈtɔ̀mːtɛ]), nisse (Norway and Denmark) (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈnìsːɛ] or Danish pronunciation: [ˈnesə], Danish plural nisser) or tonttu (Finland) is a mythological creature from Scandinavian folklore typically associated with the winter solstice and the Christmas season. It is generally described as being no taller than three feet, having a long white beard, and wearing a conical or knit cap in red or some other bright color. It is known as a gift bearer and is considered one of the Swedish and Norwegian versions of Santa Claus, although not the same thing.
<...>
The tomte is preceded by another mythological creature: the Yule goat. Traditionally, the Yule goats appeared on Christmas Eve, knocking on the doors of their homes, handing out presents.
The Yule goat was later replaced by or conflated with the tomte or nisse, whose appearance is somewhat similar to that of a garden gnome. According to tradition, the tomte/nisse lives in the houses and barns of the farmstead, and secretly act as their guardian. If treated well, they protect the family and animals from evil and misfortune, and may also aid the chores and farm work. However, they are known to be short tempered, especially when offended. Once insulted, they will usually play tricks, steal items and even maim or kill livestock.
The tomte/nisse will deliver gifts at the door, in accordance with the modern-day Swedish/Norwegian tradition of the visiting Santa Claus who enters homes to hand out presents. The tomte/nisse is also commonly seen with a pig, another popular Christmas symbol in Scandinavia, probably related to fertility and their role as guardians of the farmstead. It is customary to leave a behind a bowl of porridge with butter for the tomte/nisse, in gratitude for the services rendered.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabouter
Kabouter is the Dutch/Afrikaans word for gnome or leprechaun. In folklore, the Dutch Kabouters are akin to the Irish Leprechaun, Scandinavian Tomte, the English Hob, the Scottish Brownie and the German Klabauter or kobold.
In the folklore of the Low Countries, kabouters are tiny men who live underground or in mushrooms, or spirits who help in the home. The males have long, full beards (unlike dwarves, who do not always have full beards) and wear tall, pointed red hats. They are generally shy of humans.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domovoi
A domovoi or domovoy (Russian: домово́й; IPA: [dəmɐˈvoj]; literally, "[he] from the house") is a protective house spirit in Slavic folklore
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The domovoi is seen as the home's guardian, and if he is kept happy he maintains peace and order and rewards the household by helping with household chores and field work. To stay in his good graces, his family leaves him gifts such as milk, porridge, tobacco, bread, and salt.
If angered by the family's slovenliness, disrespect, or abuse, the domovoi acts in a way resembling a poltergeist but is rarely harmful. The Russian word barabashka (Russian: бараба́шка; "knocker, pounder") is a pejorative term sometimes used to describe domovye in connection with this poltergeist-like activity. If he becomes irretrievably offended he abandons the family.
<...>
Main name variations:
   ● Damavik/Domovik Belarusian: Дамавiк, Ukrainian: Домовик, Polish: Domowik, Slovak: Domovik Bulgarian: Домовик
   ● Domachi Serbian: Домаћи, Croatian: Domaći, Bosnian: Domaći
   ● Domovoi Russian: Домовой (domovoi), Polish: Domowoj Slovene: Domovoj Bosnian: Domovoj
   ● Kudava Erzya: "house mother"
   ● Mayas gars Latvian: Mājas gars "house spirit"
   ● Mayas kungs Latvian: Mājas kungs "house master," tutelary spirit, lar.
   ● Pudzis angelozi Georgian ფუძის ანგელოზი "foundational angel"
Wikipedia

What is the underlying mechanism of the sleepwalking? It is very simple. During the sleep the main personality of a man falls asleep and during that time the autonomic neurocluster takes over the control of the human body and initiates actions. When the main personality wakes up he can not remember what was happening during the sleepwalking because all events had happened without his knowledge.
When a sleepwalker is engaged in sexual activities then this phenomenon called sexsomnia. Sexsomniac has sex while asleep, a women might even become pregnant, however after awakening a man has absolutely no remembrance of his sexual activities. Christian saint Virgin Mary (who became pregnant from the Holy Spirit) perfectly matches the criteria for sexsomnia.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+1&version=ESV
18 Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit.
Bible. Matthew 1:18

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasomnia
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep. Most parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions between wakefulness and NREM sleep, or wakefulness and REM sleep.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_sex
Sleep sex, or sexsomnia, is a condition in which a person will engage in sexual activities while asleep. This condition falls within the broad class of sleep disorders known as parasomnias. In extreme cases, sexsomnia has been alleged, and accepted, as the cause of sexual assault, including rape.
The proposed medical diagnosis is NREM arousal parasomnia – sexual behaviour in sleep. Sexsomnia is considered a type of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) parasomnia. Sexsomniacs do not remember the acts that they perform while they are asleep.
Sexsomnia can co-occur alongside other sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, sleep apnea, night terrors and bedwetting and can be triggered by stress, previous sleep deprivation and excessive consumption of alcohol or other drugs. Sleep related epilepsy may be associated with sexual arousal, pelvic thrusting and orgasms. Sexsomnia episodes may be triggered by physical contact with a bed partner. Sexsomnia, which is a fairly new medically recognized behaviour, has been used in criminal defense cases of rape. There have been several cases of sexsomnia which have appeared in the news and also in pop culture as reality shows and movies.

History
The first research paper that suggested that sexual behavior during sleep may be a new type of parasomnia was published in 1996 by three researchers from the University of Toronto (Colin Shapiro and Nik Trajanovic) and the University of Ottawa (Paul Fedoroff). The term "sleepsex" was used in a 1998 case report by David Saul Rosenfeld, a neurologist and sleep specialist from Los Angeles. The term 'sexsomnia' was coined by Colin Shapiro in a case report published in June 2003.

Psychology
Sleep sex may accompany relationship difficulties and feelings of embarrassment. Often the actions of the person who has sexsomnia are reported by his or her partner as the sexsomniacs are unaware of the event.
Clonazepam has been used as a first line of treatment for this condition, when other measures are not enough to solve a case of sexsomnia.

Cases reported in the press
Natalie Pona, then a reporter for the Sun, broke the first press story of sexsomnia in the fall of 2005. On 30 November 2005, a Toronto court acquitted a man of sexual assault after he was diagnosed with sleep sex disorder, although prosecutors filed an appeal of the acquittal in February 2006. The Ontario Court of Appeal upheld the acquittal on 7 February 2008.
In Britain, a man from York was cleared of three counts of rape on 19 December 2005.
In Australia, a woman was reported as leaving her house at night and having sex with strangers while sleepwalking.
On 8 August 2007, a British RAF mechanic was cleared of a rape charge after the jury found him not responsible for his actions when he had sex with a 15-year-old girl.
On 12 February 2010, an Australian man was found not guilty of rape due to sexsomnia. This similarly happened to a Welsh man on 4 July 2011.
On 7 March 2012, a British woman gave an interview in which she described how her sexsomnia had made sustaining a relationship difficult.
Wikipedia

Some sorts of sleeping pills (like for example “Zolpidem”) can induce sleepwalking incidents which are very different from standard sleepwalking incidents. In standard sleepwalking cases it is almost impossible to carry any meaningful conversation with the sleepwalker because the intelligence level of standard sleepwalker is very low, however in pill induced sleepwalking cases the sleepwalker can carry complex meaningful conversations with other people who are even unable to recognize that they are having conversation with the sleepwalker, however after waking up in the morning the sleepwalker is unable to remember anything from his sleepwalking activity, just like in standard sleepwalking cases.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zolpidem
Zolpidem (brand names Ambien, Ambien CR, Intermezzo, Stilnox, Stilnoct, Sublinox, Hypnogen, Zonadin, Sanval and Zolsana) is a prescription medication used for the treatment of insomnia and some brain disorders.<...>
Some users have reported unexplained sleepwalking while using zolpidem, as well as sleep driving, binge eating while asleep, and performing other daily tasks while sleeping. Research by Australia's National Prescribing Service found these events occur mostly after the first dose taken, or within a few days of starting therapy. Rare reports of sexual parasomnia episodes related to zolpidem intake have also been reported. Sleepwalkers can sometimes perform these tasks as normally as they might if they were awake. They can sometimes carry on complex conversations and respond appropriately to questions or statements, so much so that observers may believe them to be awake. This is in contrast to "typical" sleep talking, which can usually be identified easily and is characterised by incoherent speech that often has no relevance to the situation or that is so disorganised as to be completely unintelligible.
Those under the influence of this medication may seem fully aware of their environments, though they are still asleep. This can bring about concerns for the safety of the sleepwalkers and others. These side effects may be related to the mechanism that also causes zolpidem to produce its hypnotic properties. It is unclear whether the drug is responsible for the behavior, but a class-action lawsuit was filed against Sanofi-Aventis in March 2006 on behalf of those who reported symptoms. Conversely, it is possible some users believed they were asleep during these events because they do not remember the events, due to the short-term memory loss and anterograde amnesia side-effects.
Residual 'hangover' effects, such as sleepiness and impaired psychomotor and cognitive function, may persist into the day following nighttime administration. Such effects may impair the ability of users to drive safely and increase risks of falls and hip fractures.
The Sydney Morning Herald in Australia in 2007 reported a man who fell 30 meters to his death from a high-rise unit balcony may have been sleepwalking under the influence of Stilnox. The coverage prompted over 40 readers to contact the newspaper with their own accounts of Stilnox-related automatism, and as of March 2007, the drug was under review by the Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee.
In February 2008, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration attached a boxed warning to zolpidem, stating that "Zolpidem may be associated with potentially dangerous complex sleep-related behaviors that may include sleep walking, sleep driving, and other bizarre behaviours. Zolpidem is not to be taken with alcoholic beverages. Caution is needed with other CNS-depressant drugs. Limit use to four weeks maximum under close medical supervision." This report received widespread media coverage after the death of Australian student Mairead Costigan, who fell 20 m from the Sydney Harbour Bridge while under the influence of Stilnox.
Wikipedia

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/15/business/15drug.ready.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
F.D.A. Warns of Sleeping Pills’ Strange Effects
March 15, 2007
By Stephanie Saul
New York Times. March 15, 2007

It is interesting to note that very often insomnia is caused by some subthreshold stimulus which is too weak to reach the awareness of main personality, however strong enough to prevent falling asleep, as a classical example of such case is the increased stomach acidity which is too weak to be noticed by the awareness of main personality however which is strong enough to induce insomnia. A man may be fully unaware that his stomach acidity is too high and such man will have no idea why he is unable to fall asleep. However if such insomniac will drink at least one antacid tablet (which neutralizes gastric acid in the stomach) he will be able to fall asleep in ten minutes or so – in such case antacid tablet will be more effective than sleeping pill.

The similar underlying mechanism is during the state of affect. When a deadly danger condition arises the autonomic neurocluster pushes the main personality from the control of the body and takes over the control of the body, the autonomic neurocluster accomplishes defensive and/or lifesaving actions, and then returns the control of the body to the main personality. Most countries allow conditions that "affect the balance of the mind" to be regarded as mitigating circumstances. In many countries there is a common legal practice – if the forensic psychiatrists determine that the murder was done in the state of affect the man is considered not guilty and not responsible.
Religious adepts believe that every man has his own “guardian angel” which protects and guides a man and which can save a man from a deadly danger. The underlying mechanism of the “guardian angel” is very simple. The “guardian angel” is the autonomic neurocluster which takes over the control of the body thus saving man’s life in the deadly danger situation.

Let’s examine the underlying mechanisms of invoking of spirits in the spiritualistic séance. During the spiritualistic séance spirits can be invoked in various ways, however one of the most popular and the best working method is “needle on the thread” method which works in the following way. A group of people (usually 3-10) sit around the table. A piece of paper is placed on the table. The circle is drawn on the paper and alphabet letters are written on the perimeter of the circle (image below shows an example of such “spirit board”).

http://www.abaxion.com/kee110.htm
Buckland Spirit Board
Buckland Spirit Board

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouija
The Ouija board (/ˈwiːdʒə/ wee-jə), also known as a spirit board or talking board, is a flat board marked with the letters of the alphabet, the numbers 0–9, the words "yes", "no", "hello" (occasionally), and "goodbye", along with various symbols and graphics. It uses a planchette (small heart-shaped piece of wood or plastic) as a movable indicator to indicate the spirit's message by spelling it out on the board during a séance. Participants place their fingers on the planchette, and it is moved about the board to spell out words. "Ouija" has become a trademark that is often used generically to refer to any talking board.
<...>
One of the first mentions of the automatic writing method used in the Ouija board is found in China around 1100 AD, in historical documents of the Song Dynasty. The method was known as fuji (扶乩), "planchette writing". The use of planchette writing as an ostensible means of contacting the dead and the spirit-world continued, and, albeit under special rituals and supervisions, was a central practice of the Quanzhen School, until it was forbidden by the Qing Dynasty. Several entire scriptures of the Daozang are supposedly works of automatic planchette writing. Similar methods of mediumistic spirit writing have been widely practiced in ancient India, Greece, Rome, and medieval Europe.
Wikipedia

http://zentaro.ru/284
Спиритическая доска
Журнал Магия – ZenTaro.ru

One of the participants takes into the hand the thread with the attached needle and stretches his hand over the table in such way that needle would hang above the center of the circle with alphabet letters. Then participants decide which spirit they would like to invoke. For example, participants have decided to invoke the spirit of Napoleon. Then all participants concentrate and begin mentally calling the spirit of Napoleon. However spirits are self-willed and invoking of the spirit can fail. It is very easy to check if the spirit invocation has succeeded or not. You need to ask questions for the spirit and the spirit provides the answers via the thread which has a needle attached at the end. After asking the question you need to hold the hand with the thread above the circle with alphabet letters and you need to look closely where the needle moves. The needle should move from one alphabet letter to another alphabet letter thus forming words and sentences. If the needle does not move at all or the movement of needle forms meaningless jumble of letters then this means that you have failed in spirit invocation. However this is not the end of the game. You can try invoking the same spirit anew, however now another participant should take thread with needle into his hand and procedure of the spirit invocation is started all over again. In case of the failure the third participant repeats the procedure again. And so on. Only in the case when none of the participants has succeeded in spirit invocation, only in that case it is considered that this particular spirit can not be invoked and participants must choose another spirit for invocation. If invoking of Napoleon spirit has failed then maybe the invocation of Abraham Lincoln’s spirit will succeed. And the invocation procedure is started all over again anew. The procedure is repeated as many times as needed until invocation of any spirit will succeed. When spirit is invoked, the communication with spirit is accomplished by asking questions and looking closely at the movement of needle over the circle with alphabet letters which should form words and sentences from single letters.

Communication with spirit (spiritualistic séance) is governed by several laws:

1) The thread the needle must be hold in the hand of alive human. If the needle with the thread will be tied to some inanimate object (like for example the lamp, ceiling, etc) then no spirit will be able to move that needle from standing still position, no spirit will be able to move that needle forming words and sentences from the letters. The needle will hang still in one place. In other words, the spirit can manifest itself only via movements of alive human. Without alive human who holds thread with the needle the spirit will be unable to manifest itself. If the needle with the thread will be tied to some inanimate object then it will hang still in one place no matter what kind of magic incantations, prayers, magic incense/candles, drum beats, chanting, etc will be used – nothing will help and the needle will hang still firmly in one place. And according to claims of religious adepts spirits are able to move and throw heavy objects (like tables, closets, etc) – in such case moving a thread with a needle must be extremely easy task for the spirit. However needle is unable to move unless it is held be alive human. The techniques of spiritualistic séances clearly show that spirits are unable to move inanimate objects – no spirit is able to move the needle from standing still position if that needle is tied to inanimate object. The spirit can manifest itself only via movements of alive human.

2) Only small percentage of people can invoke the spirit with thread and needle method. For example if you have a group of 10 participants then only 1, 3, 5, 7, etc participants can invoke the spirit. Only in rare cases the spirit can be invoked by all participants in the group.

3) Every man has the unique psychological portrait and a man can be identified by his unique characteristic speech pattern, unique characteristic vocabulary, unique characteristic style of sentences, even unique characteristic grammatical errors, etc. As for example when we have a text piece consisting of 10 sentences often we can quite clearly identify if this text was written by Peter, John, Thomas or somebody else. The same concept applies to spirits too. Spirits have their unique psychological portrait too. However it very important to note that the same spirit X (for example Napoleon’s spirit) changes its psychological portrait depending on which man is holding the thread with the needle. For example if John holds the thread with the needle then Napoleon’s spirit will become very knowledgeable in music and ignoramus in technical sciences, however if Peter takes the thread with the needle in his hands then Napoleon’s spirit becomes knowledgeable in technical sciences and ignoramus in music, when the thread with the needle is returned back to John the Napoleon’s spirit becomes again knowledgeable in music and ignoramus in technical sciences. In other words experimental results of spiritualistic séances clearly show that Napoleon’s spirit changes its psychological portrait depending on which man is holding the thread with the needle. It is obvious that if Napoleon’s spirit would be independently existing independent object then its psychological portrait would remain stable and would not change when different people take the thread with the needle into their hands. This means that Napoleon’s spirit is modeled by the neurocluster inside man’s brain. Different people have different knowledge about Napoleon and thus they have different Napoleon models inside their brain. Some things in these Napoleon models will similar however there will be also differences. And the more the knowledge about Napoleon differs in different people the more the psychological portraits of Napoleon’s spirit will be different when these people invoke Napoleon’s spirit using thread with the needle method. If a man’s brain contains insufficient knowledge about Napoleon, in other words if a man’s brain has very weak model about Napoleon then such man will be unable to invoke Napoleon’s spirit during spiritualistic séance.
Experimental results show that spirits which are invoked during spiritualistic séances are merely autonomic neuroclusters inside the man’s brain which model personality of spirit X. In other words during spiritualistic séances the man is communicating with his own autonomic neuroclusters inside its own brain in the similar way like in the split-brain experiments. Due to the ignorance of the brain physiology people naively believe that they are communicating with the spirits from outside of the material world.

4) If spiritualistic séances are performed regularly for prolonged periods of time then very often mediums begin to experience “strange unexplainable frightening things” – various objects in the home begin disappearing and reappearing in unusual places (like for example shoes in the fridge), clothes are thrown out from closets and closets are overthrown to the floor, tables overthrown, various things are broken, etc. However all these stories have one common pattern – when a man is asked “have you seen with your own eyes how these things move, fly around or break apart?”, the answer is always “no, I have not seen that with my own eyes, however when I opened the door of the room, I had found things scattered and broken, closet overthrown to the floor, etc”, in other words, he always sees only the final result (things moved or broken), however he never sees the action itself – how these things move or break. For some mediums these “strange unexplainable frightening things” disappear themselves and never come back again, however for other mediums these incidents do not stop and continue happening until a man gets crazy from permanent fear and that man ends up in a lunatic asylum.

Let’s raise a question: why spiritualistic séances often end up with “strange unexplainable frightening things” happening to the medium?
The answer is simple. When spiritualistic séances are performed regularly for prolonged periods of time then autonomic neuroclusters in the brain develop more and more the ability to control man’s body independently from main personality – at first only small microscopic hand movements and later autonomic neurocluster becomes able to take over the control of whole body and this phenomenon is called “sleepwalking”.
During sleepwalking a man gets out from the bed, walks around the home moving and breaking various objects, goes back to bed, and in the morning when he wakes up he has no remembrance of his nocturnal activity. After waking up he finds that some objects in his home are misplaced in unusual places and some of the objects are broken. A man immediately begins to panic “who has moved these objects if I was alone in the home?”. In order to remain sanity a man needs to have model of the world which would explain what is happening around him. The fastest explanation for misplaced objects is that some flying-demon-spirit has moved these objects. However the truth is that he himself has moved these objects while sleepwalking, however he does not know that, so he strongly sticks to the belief that demon-spirits are flying around in his house. During sleepwalking incidents he might even kill people and when he will wake up he will be strongly convinced that demon-spirits had killed these people.
If “strange unexplainable frightening things” happen during the night then it is the classical case of sleepwalking, however if “strange unexplainable frightening things” happen during the daytime (such cases are much more rare) then it is the case of “multiple personality disorder“. However most often spiritualistic séances end up in being “possessed by demons”.
The underlying mechanism of sleepwalking, multiple personality disorder and “demonic possession” is exactly identical – the autonomous neurocluster takes over the control of the man’s body. Sleepwalking, multiple personality disorder and “demonic possession” are just different manifestations/projections of the same phenomenon.

http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/erlendsson_01_jun_03.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/...aspects_of_the_inner_self
Personalities or Possession?
When alter personalities are asked about whom they believe they are, they say they are: children (86%), helping spirits (84%), demons (29%), another living person (28%), dead relatives (21%) and a person with opposite sex (63%). The two largest case series that have looked into this are by F W Putnam (1986) who described 100 cases and C A Ross (1989) who described 236 cases. Even though the majority of alters claim not to belong to the individual the prevailing opinion is that these are in fact parts of the individual.
‘Multiple Personality Disorder - Demons and Angels or Archetypal aspects of the inner self’. 2003
Dr Haraldur Erlendsson

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homicidal_sleepwalking
Homicidal sleepwalking, also known as homicidal somnambulism or sleepwalking murder, is the act of killing someone during an episode of sleepwalking. In a few cases, sleepwalkers kill people, usually a family member, during their sleepwalking act. There have been several rare cases in which an alleged act of homicide has occurred, and the prime suspect may have committed the act while sleepwalking.
Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouija
The Swedish-American psychiatrist Dr. Carl Wickland wrote in 1924 that he had treated the cases of "several persons whose seemingly harmless experiences with automatic writing and the Ouija board resulted in such wild insanity that commitment to asylums was necessitated.
Wikipedia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DG6KjmGM47E

Ouija Board Demonic Possession Video
Length: 5 minutes

A Ouija board possession video has been released showing three American friends who were hospitalized in Mexico after playing the popular game and allegedly becoming inhabited by evil spirits. We take a look at video of the aftermath, in this Lip News clip with Mark Sovel and Lissette Padilla.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2665899/Possessed-girl.html
Three American friends have been taken to hospital after reportedly becoming 'possessed' by evil spirits while playing with a Ouija board.
Alexandra Huerta, 22, was playing the game with her brother Sergio, 23, and 18-year-old cousin Fernando Cuevas at a house in the village of San Juan Tlacotenco in south-west Mexico.
But minutes into it, she apparently started 'growling' and thrashing around in a 'trance-like' state.
Three American friends hospitalised after becoming 'possessed' following Ouija board game in Mexican village
By Sophie Jane Evans
The Daily Mail. 23 June 2014

Religious adepts claim that teleportation is one of the “siddhi powers” which the adept can achieve when he has reached high spiritual states.
The underlying mechanism of “teleportation” is very simple. During sleepwalking and/or MPD (multiple personality disorder) incident the man travels to another place and when he wakes up he finds himself in a new place having absolutely no knowledge about how he has got there and thus he becomes strongly convinced that he has teleported from one location into another.

Religious adepts claim that stigmata are miracles and stigmata are the evidence of holiness. However real experimental facts show that stigmata are the result of self-mutilation during sleepwalking and/or MPD (multiple personality disorder) incidents which are usually invoked by prolonged self-starvation and prayers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stigmata
Stigmata (singular stigma) is a term used by members of the Christian faith to describe body marks, sores, or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ, such as the hands, wrists, and feet.
The term originates from the line at the end of Saint Paul's Letter to the Galatians where he says, "I bear on my body the marks of Jesus." Stigmata is the plural of the Greek word στίγμα stigma, meaning a mark, tattoo, or brand such as might have been used for identification of an animal or slave. An individual bearing stigmata is referred to as a stigmatic or a stigmatist.
<...>
Scientific research
Some modern research has indicated stigmata are of hysterical origin, or linked to dissociative identity disorders, especially the link between dietary constriction by self-starvation, dissociative mental states and self-mutilation, in the context of a religious belief. Anorexia nervosa cases often display self-mutilation similar to stigmata as part of a ritualistic, obsessive compulsive disorder. A relationship between starvation and self-mutilation has been reported amongst prisoners of war and during famines. A psychoanalytic study of stigmatic Therese Neumann has suggested that her stigmata resulted from post-traumatic stress symptoms expressed in unconscious self-mutilation through abnormal autosuggestibility.
Wikipedia

http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/fessler/pubs/FesslerStigmata.pdf
Starvation, serotonin, and symbolism. A psychobiocultural perspective on stigmata

Abstract
Stigmata, wounds resembling those of Christ, have been reported since the 13th century. The wounds typically appear in association with visions following prolonged fasting. This paper argues that selfstarvation holds the key to understanding this unique event. Stigmata may result from selfmutilation occurring during dissociation, phenomena precipitated in part by dietary constriction. Psychophysiological mechanisms produced by natural selection adjust the salience of risk in light of current resource abundance. As a result, artificial dietary constriction results in indifference to harm. A variety of data links dramatic dietary constriction, reduced serotonergic functioning, altered states of consciousness, and self-injurious behavior. Catholic representations of Christ’s crucifixion provide a cultural context that both motivates and lends meaning to the experiences of individuals whose predispositions and life histories increase the likelihood of dietary constriction, dissociation, and selfmutilation. Examining this case raises interesting questions about both the evolutionary and the cultural grounds for defining individual psychopathology.
Keywords: stigmata, fasting, serotonin, impulsivity, self-mutilation, dissociation, trance
Daniel Fessler. 2002. Mind and Society

http://books.google.com/books?id=ERqGBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT327&dq=300.14...
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Diagnostic Criteria 300.14 (F44.81)
<...>
The dissociative amnesia of individuals with dissociative identity disorder manifests in three primary ways: as 1) gaps in remote memory of personal life events (e.g., periods of childhood or adolescence; some important life events, such as the death of a grandparent, getting married, giving birth); 2) lapses in dependable memory (e.g., of what happened today, of well-leamed skills such as how to do their job, use a computer, read, drive); and 3) discovery of evidence of their everyday actions and tasks that they do not recollect doing (e.g., finding unexplained objects in their shopping bags or among their possessions; finding perplexing writings or drawings that they must have created; discovering injuries; "coming to" in the midst of doing something). Dissociative fugues, wherein the person discovers dissociated travel, are common. Thus, individuals with dissociative identity disorder may report that they have suddenly found themselves at the beach, at work, in a nightclub, or somewhere at home (e.g., in the closet, on a bed or sofa, in the corner) with no memory of how they came to be there. Amnesia in individuals with dissociative identity disorder is not limited to stressful or traumatic events; these individuals often cannot recall everyday events as well.
American Psychiatric Publishing. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition. DSM-5. 2013. Page 293

Religious adepts claim that chrism oil (a.k.a. myrrh) coming out of icons is the evidence of holiness – the majority of such cases are simple forgeries carefully plotted and made by religious adepts who are very aware of their deceptive activity, however sometimes the story behind myrrh-streaming icons is much more interesting – during sleepwalking and/or MPD (multiple personality disorder) incidents the religious adept comes to the icon and moistens it with chrism oil – when religious adept wakes up into full awareness he has no recollection of his activity and when he finds out that icon “has become myrrh-streaming” he becomes strongly convinced that he has witnessed the miracle with his own eyes. The same identical underlying mechanism (i.e. sleepwalking and/or MPD activity) is behind other religious miracles as well.
And this raises an interesting technical question: when the religious adept accomplishes “miraculous” actions during sleepwalking and/or MPD incident and when he wakes up and he has no recollection whatsoever about his sleepwalking/MPD activity and when he begins broadcasting “news about the miracle” to other people – can we consider such man as a swindler/deceiver? The main personality of such man has no knowledge whatsoever about the physical activity of the autonomous neuroclusters (inside his own brain) which have accomplished the “miracle” using the physical body of that man. Actually the main personality of such man is himself a victim of the deception accomplished by autonomous neuroclusters residing inside his own brain.

In is important to note, that prayers are in essence the unidirectional spiritualistic séances because the purpose of the prayer is to deliver adept’s requests for the deity without getting any real-time feedback from that deity. When Christians pray to Jesus and Mary then by definition the Christians are actually conducting unidirectional spiritualistic séances with Jesus and Mary.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prayer
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with a deity, an object of worship, or a spiritual entity through deliberate communication. <...> Prayer may be directed towards a deity, spirit, deceased person, or lofty idea, for the purpose of worshipping, requesting guidance, requesting assistance, confessing sins or to express one's thoughts and emotions. Thus, people pray for many reasons such as personal benefit or for the sake of others.
Most major religions involve prayer in one way or another. Some ritualize the act of prayer, requiring a strict sequence of actions or placing a restriction on who is permitted to pray, while others teach that prayer may be practiced spontaneously by anyone at any time.
Wikipedia

It is interesting to note that dogmas of almost all religions strictly forbid any contact with the spirits and forbid all forms of mediumship.
As for example God Yahweh/Jehovah/YHWH in the Bible has strictly forbidden any contact with the spirits and all forms of mediumship.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Deuteronomy+18&version=ESV
10 There shall not be found among you anyone who burns his son or his daughter as an offering, anyone who practices divination or tells fortunes or interprets omens, or a sorcerer
11 or a charmer or a medium or a necromancer or one who inquires of the dead,
12 for whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord. And because of these abominations the Lord your God is driving them out before you.
Bible. Deuteronomy 18:10-12

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Leviticus+19&version=ESV
31 “Do not turn to mediums or necromancers; do not seek them out, and so make yourselves unclean by them: I am the Lord your God.
Bible. Leviticus 19:31

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Leviticus+20&version=ESV
6 “If a person turns to mediums and necromancers, whoring after them, I will set my face against that person and will cut him off from among his people.
<...>
27 “A man or a woman who is a medium or a necromancer shall surely be put to death. They shall be stoned with stones; their blood shall be upon them.”
Bible. Leviticus 20:6, 20:27

Nonetheless the leaders/founders of the religious cults totally ignore God’s prohibition to talk to spirits.
As for example, Jesus totally ignored the prohibition of God Yahweh/Jehovah/YHWH to talk to spirits and that was one of the reasons why God Yahweh/Jehovah/YHWH killed Jesus.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+8&version=ESV
26 Then they sailed to the country of the Gerasenes, which is opposite Galilee.
27 When Jesus had stepped out on land, there met him a man from the city who had demons. For a long time he had worn no clothes, and he had not lived in a house but among the tombs.
28 When he saw Jesus, he cried out and fell down before him and said with a loud voice, “What have you to do with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg you, do not torment me.”
29 For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. (For many a time it had seized him. He was kept under guard and bound with chains and shackles, but he would break the bonds and be driven by the demon into the desert.)
30 Jesus then asked him, “What is your name?” And he said, “Legion,” for many demons had entered him.
31 And they begged him not to command them to depart into the abyss.
32 Now a large herd of pigs was feeding there on the hillside, and they begged him to let them enter these. So he gave them permission.
33 Then the demons came out of the man and entered the pigs, and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake and drowned.
Bible. Luke 8: 26-33

Religious adepts believe that spirits are some kind of “cloudlets”, which can travel via air, which can fly from one geographical location into another, which can throw/break material objects, which can reveal themselves to “spiritually advanced” adepts, etc.
Wrong understanding about the physical nature of “spirits” leads to wrong actions, as for example religious adepts spray with “holy water” places which are “possessed by ghosts” naively expecting that this supposedly should help.
Skeptic scientists who are ignoramus about the existence of autonomic neuroclusters make wrong conclusions too. When such skeptic scientist investigates medium who communicates with poltergeist by knock sounds (as for example one knock means “yes” and two knocks means “no”) and when he finds out that knocking is accomplished by the leg of the medium under the table, skeptic scientist declares that medium is the swindler. Yes, of course, there mediums who are swindlers, however there many cases where the main personality of the medium has no awareness about the fact that the leg of the medium is kicking the floor under the table – in this case the accusation of being swindler is actually incorrect.

Communication with God” has exactly the same underlying principle as “spiritualistic séance” – when a man prays every day and ask the God to show up, then neurocluster which models the God becomes stronger and stronger, until one day it might begin communication with the man’s main personality as independent personality. By the way, a technical hint for ones who wishfully desire to talk with God but had failed in reaching this goal so far – the good working technique for invoking the God is the spiritualistic “thread with a needle” technique which was described above. The technique for invoking the God is exactly the same as the technique for invoking any spirit.

Religious adepts claim that spirits are something like “vapor/dust/light clouds” which travel via air and can interact with material objects, like for example pushing heavy furniture, smashing cups and glasses, moving around objects, etc (a.k.a. poltergeist). However techniques used in spiritualistic séances clearly show that spirits are unable to move the inanimate object – no spirit is able to move a thread with a needle when the thread is tied to some inanimate object (like for example the lamp, ceiling, etc). Spirit can manifest itself only via movements done by the alive human – thread with a needle will move only when it is held by alive human. And this raises the simple question: if the spirits were able to push and smash heavy objects (like furniture) then movement of a thread with a needle would be extremely easy task for the spirit, isn’t it? However experimental results show that spirits are unable to move such extra light object as the thread with the needle when needle is tied to some inanimate object. Spirits can manifest themselves only via the movements of the human body.
Almost all religions and cults claim exactly the same error – they all claim that spirits can exist independently from physical body. The origin of such erroneous claim is due to the fact that “spiritual travelers” very often encounter “spiritual beings” which have no match for any known object in real physical world, thus “spiritual travelers” had made incorrect conclusion that these “spiritual beings” exist without any physical body. However in reality all “spiritual beings” are simulated by autonomic egregoric neuroclusters which reside in the physical brain of the “spiritual traveler”.
Below is a classical example of such erroneous claims – Carlos Castañeda (who proclaimed himself as the follower of Southern Mexico Toltec shamanic tradition) used the term “inorganic beings” to denote autonomic egregoric neuroclusters which have no match for any known object in real physical world. Carlos Castañeda naively believed that “inorganic beings” live independently from any physical body, however in reality all “inorganic beings” are destroyed when the brain of the adept is destroyed (just like computer game characters are destroyed when the computer is physically destroyed).

http://books.google.com/books?id=_3vfmEwoO1AC&pg=PR15&dq=inorganic+beings&hl=lt&sa=X&ei=mUoRVMvtF8XgyQOd0IIw&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=inorganic%20beings&f=false
They saw that inanimate energy has no awareness. Awareness, for shamans, is a vibratory condition of animate energy. Don Juan said that the shamans of ancient Mexico were the first ones to see that all the organisms on Earth are the possessors of vibratory energy. They called them organic beings, and saw that it is the organism itself which sets up the cohesiveness and the limits of such energy. They also saw that there are conglomerates of vibratory, animate energy which have a cohesion of their own, free from the bindings of an organism. They called them inorganic beings, and described them as clumps of cohesive energy that is invisible to the human eye, energy that is aware of itself, and possesses a unity determined by an agglutinating force other than the agglutinating force of an organism.
The shamans of don Juan’s lineage saw that the essential condition of animate energy, organic or inorganic, is to turn energy in the universe at large into sensory data. In the case of organic beings, this sensory data is then turned into a system of interpretation in which energy at large is classified and a given response is allotted to each classification, whatever the classification may be. The assertion of sorcerers is that in the realm of inorganic beings, the sensory data into which energy at large is transformed by the inorganic beings, must be, by definition, interpreted by them in whatever incomprehensible form they may do it.
Carlos Castañeda. The Teachings of Don Juan – A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. 1998. The Author's Commentaries on the Occasion of the Thirtieth Year of Publication of The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, XV

http://archive.org/stream/CarlosCastaneda/CarlosCastanedaCompendium1998-MagicalPasses_djvu.txt
The belief of the shamans of don Juan's lineage was that when death takes place in this fashion, all of our being is turned into energy, a special kind of energy that retains the mark of our individuality. Don Juan tried to explain this in a metaphorical sense, saying that we are composed of a number of single nations: the nation of the lungs, the nation of the heart, the nation of the stomach, the nation of the kidneys, and so on. Each of these nations sometimes works independently of the others, but at the moment of death, all of them are unified into one single entity. The sorcerers of don Juan's lineage called this state total freedom. For those sorcerers, death is a unifier, and not an annihilator, as it is for the average man.
"Is this state immortality, don Juan?" I asked.
"This is in no way immortality," he replied. "It is merely the entrance into an evolutionary process, using the only medium for evolution that man has at his disposal: awareness. The sorcerers of my lineage were convinced that man could not evolve biologically any further; therefore, they considered man's awareness to be the only medium for evolution. At the moment of dying, sorcerers are not annihilated by death, but are transformed into inorganic beings: beings that have awareness, but not an organism. To be transformed into an inorganic being was evolution for them, and it meant that a new, indescribable type of awareness was lent to them, an awareness that would last for veritably millions of years, but which would also someday have to be returned to the giver: the dark sea of awareness."
One of the most important findings of the shamans of don Juan's lineage was that, like everything else in the universe, our world is a combination of two opposing, and at the same time complementary, forces. One of those forces is the world we know, which those sorcerers called the world of organic beings. The other force is something they called the world of inorganic beings.
"The world of inorganic beings," don Juan said, "is populated by beings that possess awareness, but not an organism. They are conglomerates of energy fields, just like we are. To the eye of a seer, instead of being luminous, as human beings are, they are rather opaque. They are not round, but long, candlelike energetic configurations. They are, in essence, conglomerates of energy fields which have cohesion and boundaries just like we do. They are held together by the same agglutinating force that holds our energy
fields together."
"Where is this inorganic world, don Juan?" I asked.
"It is our twin world," he replied. "It occupies the same time and space as our world, but the type of awareness of our world is so different from the type of awareness of the inorganic world that we never notice the presence of inorganic beings, although they do notice ours."
"Are those inorganic beings human beings that have evolved?" I asked.
"Not at all!" he exclaimed. "The inorganic beings of our twin world have been intrinsically inorganic from the start, the same way that we have always been intrinsically organic beings, also from the start. They are beings whose consciousness can evolve just like ours, and it doubtlessly does, but I have no firsthand knowledge of how this happens. What I do know, however, is that a human being whose awareness has evolved is a bright, luminescent, round inorganic being of a special kind."
Carlos Castañeda. Magical Passes – The Practical Wisdom of the Shamans of Ancient Mexico. 1998.

Religious adepts are strongly convinced that during a lifetime the immortal soul/spirit collects “spiritual experience” and “develops/enhances spirituality” – at the first glance such claim looks correct, as for example, let’s take a kindergartener and an adult – in this case an adult is “much more experienced and much more spiritually developed” than a kindergartener. However this theory of “spiritual development during a lifetime” has one fundamental fault which religious adepts fail to notice, the fundamental bug of this theory is the following – when a man reaches old-age then all his mental-spiritual abilities begin to deteriorate, majority of pensioners get dementia which becomes stronger and stronger with every year – these old men lose their memories, forget their own names, etc. Only in rare exceptional cases old-man retains fully functioning vivid clear mind while the majority of old men get dementia and prayers to God and/or strict observance of religious regulations does not save them from old-age dementia.
The real world fact of old-age men getting dementia disproves the beliefs of religious adepts who claim that during lifetime human soul/spirit collects “spiritual experience” and “develops/enhances spirituality”. Even if we will make an assumption that human soul/spirit does collect “spiritual experience” then this period happens only from childhood to adulthood, however later human soul/spirit starts to lose all his “accumulated spiritual experience” – you can easily verify that by visiting any retirement home (a.k.a. old people's home) which houses many old-age people.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171622
Meeting the religious needs of residents with dementia.
Higgins P.
Abstract
This article considers practical strategies to help nurses working in care homes meet the religious needs of people with dementia, including attending services in homes or churches, supporting them in private prayer and at the end of life. It also considers the characteristics of person-centred care for such residents and how the Mental Capacity Act 2005 may be called on to support religious needs as dementia advances. To achieve good practice in all these aspects, staff in care homes should work in partnership with local faith communities and ensure they are aware of residents' life histories and preferences, including their faith practices. The focus of the article is on meeting the needs of Christian residents. For residents from other faith groups living in care homes not affiliated to their faith, the same general approach to meeting religious needs could be adopted as a starting point.
Nurs Older People. 2013 Nov;25(9):25-9. doi: 10.7748/nop2013.11.25.9.25.e501.

https://books.google.com/books?id=sEOzCAAAQBAJ&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Mental+illness#v=onepage&q=Mental%20illness&f=false
Mental illness has also deeply touched my own life. Several years ago, my mother died after a long battle with Alzheimer’s disease. It was heartbreaking to see her gradually lose her memories of her loved ones, to gaze into her eyes and realize that she did not know who I was. I could see the glimmer of humanity slowly being extinguished. She had spent a lifetime struggling to raise a family, and instead of enjoying her golden years, she was robbed of all the memories she held dear.
Michio Kaku. The Future of the Mind. The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind-Doubleday. 2014

And this leads to a simple conclusion – if you believe that you will take your “accumulated spiritual experience” into post-mortal world then you should kill yourself while you are in the peak of “accumulated spiritual experience” – if you will not do that then senility will wipe out your “accumulated spiritual experience” just like the piece of ice melts under the hot sun, and into post-mortal world you will take only pity leftovers of your “accumulated spiritual experience”. One of the main reasons why people want to have children is the expectation that your children will take care of you in your elderly years. Actually, there is no guarantee that your children will take care of you in your elderly years, as for example your children may die or become invalids earlier than you, however that is not the main point. Let’s take “the best case scenario” and let’s assume that your children will take care of you in your elderly years – in that case your children will sustain you being alive longer which will result in you reaching deeper stages of dementia and losing even more of your “accumulated spiritual experience” when compared to scenario in which you had died earlier still having larger amount of “accumulated spiritual experience”. Just think for a moment – what kind of “spiritual experience” the old-man will take into post-mortal world when he is completely lost in time and space, when he does not remember his own name, etc.
Religious adepts are convinced that after the death of their physical bodies their soul/spirit will travel into the paradise/hell or will reincarnate into some other living creature/being. Let’s analyze both scenarios.
According to religious dogmas all these old-age doddering dementia-ill adepts who go to Church every weekend – all these dementia-ill adepts will get into the paradise after the death of their physical bodies. Which means that if you will get into the paradise too then you will find yourself surrounded by myriads of these dementia-ill souls who are completely lost in time and space, who do not remember their own names, etc – according to religious dogmas all these dementia-ill souls will be gathered into the paradise because they had observed religious orders during their earthly life – which raises a simple question: do you really want spend your eternity completely surrounded by these myriads of dementia-ill souls inhabiting the paradise, is it really your most desired goal?
Now let’s analyze another scenario – the reincarnation of your soul/spirit into some other living creature/being. You have had very hard time trying to accumulate “spiritual experience” during your earthly lifetime, and then in old age you become dementia-ill and lose all your accumulated “spiritual experience” and as a result you reincarnate into the cockroach. In your new cockroach-life you have no idea for what kind of “bad karma” you were punished to become a cockroach, because according to dogmatism of reincarnation the soul/spirit has no remembrance whatsoever from the previous life. So this cockroach has no idea whatsoever what sin/error he needs to repair from previous life, because the cockroach knows nothing about his previous human-incarnation. In the new reincarnation as the cockroach you again try to accumulate “spiritual experience”, then cockroach gets old age, becomes dementia-ill, loses all his accumulated “spiritual experience”, and after the death reincarnates into the amoeba. And the process is repeated again and again the infinite number of times... a really meaningless scenario of existence, isn’t it?

Below is the simple thought experiment which disproves the claim of religious adepts that during a lifetime the immortal soul/spirit collects “spiritual experience” and “develops/enhances spirituality”.
Let’s raise a simple technical question: is the soul/spirit a 1) divisible object, or 2) indivisible object? In other words, can the soul/spirit be divided into the composing parts or not?
Here we have two scenarios:
1) If the soul/spirit is divisible object then the soul/spirit is not immortal because it can be destroyed by dividing it into the composing parts.
2) If the soul/spirit is indivisible object then it cannot collect “spiritual experience” because in order to able to save the information about the “collected experience” you need to have the ability to change the states/positions of the composing parts of that object. By definition the indivisible object cannot store information about its previous experience.

In both scenarios the religious dogmas are crushed. If the soul/spirit is able to collect “spiritual experience” then this means that the soul/spirit must be composed of composing parts which means that such soul/spirit is not immortal – it can be destroyed by dividing it into the composing parts. And if the soul is immortal then it must be indivisible which means such soul/spirit cannot collect “spiritual experience” during the lifetime which means that all religious rituals/practices which supposedly collect “good spiritual experience” – all these religious rituals/practices are meaningless.
Two dogmas – 1) the immortality of the soul/spirit and 2) the collection of “spiritual experience” during the lifetime – are two dogmas which contradict each other – if one dogma is true then another dogma is automatically false, they cannot be both true simultaneously.

Some religious teachings claim that apart from physical body the man also has many other subtle bodies. The number and the naming of these subtle bodies are different in different religious schools, however all these different classifications share one common ground – it is claimed that some of these subtle bodies are mortal and they die after the death of the physical body and some other subtle bodies are immortal and are reincarnated into another being (or travel into paradise/hell).
Some religious teachings claim that apart from the physical body the man also has many other subtle bodies. The number and the naming of these subtle bodies are different in different religious schools, however all these different classifications share one common ground – it is claimed that some of these subtle bodies are mortal and they die after the death of the physical body and some other subtle bodies are immortal and are reincarnated into another being (or travel into paradise/hell). If we will make the assumption that these immortal subtle bodies do exist then as it is shown above all accumulated “spiritual experience” will be completely lost after the reincarnation which means that obedience (of religious adept) to the regulations of religious dogmas is completely meaningless.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtle_body
A subtle body is one of a series of psycho-spiritual constituents of living beings, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings. According to such beliefs each subtle body corresponds to a subtle plane of existence, in a hierarchy or great chain of being that culminates in the physical form.
According to Bhagavad Gita, one of the most sacred texts of Hinduism, the subtle body is composed of mind, intelligence and ego, which controls the gross physical body. It is also known in other different spiritual traditions: "the most sacred body" (wujud al-aqdas) and "true and genuine body" (jism asli haqiqi) in Sufism, "the diamond body" in Taoism and Vajrayana, "the light body" or "rainbow body" in Tibetan Buddhism, "the body of bliss" in Kriya Yoga, and "the immortal body" (soma athanaton) in Hermeticism. The various attributes of the subtle body are frequently described in terms of often obscure symbolism: Tantra features references to the sun and moon as well as various Indian rivers and deities, while Taoist alchemy speaks of cauldrons and cinnabar fields.
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H. P. Blavatsky's Theosophical teaching represented the convergence of 19th century Western occultism, Eastern philosophy, religion, science, and mysticism. The Secret Doctrine, and The Key to Theosophy combined the Vedantic concept of five koshas with Western esoteric traditions (particularly Neoplatonism). She refers to three subtle bodies:
   ● Linga Sharira – the Double or Astral body
   ● Mayavi-rupa – the "Illusion-body."
   ● Causal Body – the vehicle of the higher Mind.
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C.W. Leadbeater, regarding the emotional body as the seat of the kamic principle of Blavatsky's constitution, denominated it astral body. Therefore, the subtle bodies in a human being are:
   ● Etheric body (vehicle of prana)
   ● Emotional or astral body (vehicle of desires and emotions)
   ● Mental body (vehicle of the concrete or lower mind)
   ● Causal body (vehicle of the abstract or higher mind)
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthroposophical_view_of_the_human_being
In Steiner's sevenfold and ninefold descriptions, a human is composed of physical-body, life-body, astral-body, ego, spirit-self, life-spirit, and spirit-man.
   ● the physical body, material structure
   ● the life body, life processes,
   ● the astral body, bearer of consciousness,
   ● the ego, self-awareness,
   ● the spirit-self, intuition and self,
   ● the life-spirit, enduring spirit-soul content,
   ● the spirit-man, the fully individuated spirit.
Wikipedia

http://www.spiritual-experiences.com/articles-spirituality/subtle-body-seven-bodies.php
Subtle Body Energies: The Seven Subtle Bodies <....>
First Layer (The Etheric Body) <....>
Second Layer (The Emotional Body) <....>
Third Layer (The Mental Body) <....>
Fourth Layer (The Astral level) <....>
The Fifth Layer (The Etheric Template Body) <....>
The Sixth Layer (The Celestial Body) <....>
The Seventh Layer (The Ketheric Template or Causal Body)
Spiritual-Experiences.com

Psychography (a.k.a. automatic writing) is a phenomenon when a man takes a sheet of paper, places the paper on the table, takes a pen into his hand, places a hand on the sheet of paper and the hand begins to write text autonomously independently from man’s main personality which looks like some other being had been taken the control over the hand, and the man have no control over the text which is being written on the sheet of paper and the man does not know what will be written on the sheet of paper. Very often the man falls into the trance or hypnotic state during the séance of psychography, however there are some cases when a man remains fully conscious. During the séance of psychography the style of handwriting and the psychological portrait becomes completely different from the original man and due to the ignorance of the brain physiology people naively believe that psychography proves that the spirit from outside of the material world has taken over the hand of the writer and the writer is a medium (a person who serves as an intermediary between the physical world and the spiritual world). Mediumship is defined as the practice of certain people – known as mediums – to mediate communication between spirits of the dead and other human beings.
Professor Ernest Ropiequet “Jack” Hilgard from Stanford University had made huge number of experiments in which he used hypnosis to set up a hidden observer in the subject that communicated only through automatic writing.
In other words, professor Ernest Hilgard using hypnosis inducted the manifestation of autonomous neuroclusters in the subjects.
The underlying mechanism of hypnosis is very simple – during the hypnosis the main personality of a man is put to sleep and then hypnotist can communicate directly with autonomous neuroclusters inside the subject’s brain giving orders to autonomous neuroclusters and these autonomous neuroclusters carry out orders without the knowledge of main personality.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hilgard
Ernest Ropiequet "Jack" Hilgard (July 25, 1904 – October 22, 2001) was an American psychologist and professor at Stanford University. He became famous in the 1950s for his research on hypnosis, especially with regard to pain control. Along with André Muller Weitzenhoffer, Hilgard developed the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales.
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Hilgard is specifically known for his theory that a so-called "hidden observer" is created in the mind while hypnosis is taking place. His research on the hidden observer during hypnotic pain management was intended to provide support for his neodissociationist theory. This theory held that a person undergoing hypnosis can still observe his or her own pain without consciously experiencing any suffering. The phenomenon of the "hidden observer" was controversial and critics claimed it could be manufactured by suggestions, indicating that it was possibly no more than an artifact of the instructions given to the research participants. Writing in the late 1970s (Hilgard, E. (1977). Divided consciousness: Multiple controls in human thought and action. New York, NY: Wiley), Ernest Hilgard became convinced that we all have another being sharing our lives. Hilgard termed this entity the “hidden observer.”
In one of his books, Hilgard described a classic test demonstrating how this hidden entity is part of our consciousness. He wrote of a blind student who was hypnotized and, while in a trance state, was told that he would become deaf. The suggestion was so strong that he failed to react to any form of noise, even large sounds next to his ear. Of course, he also failed to respond to any questions he was asked while in his trance state. The hypnotist was keen to discover if “anybody else” was able to hear. He quietly said to the student, “Perhaps there is some part of you that is hearing my voice and processing the information. If there is, I should like the index finger of your right hand to rise as a sign that this is the case”(Hilgard, 1977, p. 186). The finger rose. At this, the student requested that he be brought out of the hypnotically-induced period of deafness. On being “awakened”, the student said that he had requested to come out of the trance state because “I felt my finger rise in a way that was not a spontaneous twitch, so you must have done something to make it rise, and I want to know what you did” (p. 186). The hypnotist then asked him what he remembered. Because the trance was light, the student never actually lost consciousness; all that occurred was that his hearing had ceased. In order to deal with the boredom of being deprived of both sight and sound,he had decided to work on some statistical problems in his head. It was while he was doing this that he suddenly felt his finger lift. This was obviously strange to him, because under normal circumstances he was, like all of us, the “person” who decides on how the body moves. In this case he was not. Not only that, but “somebody else” in his head was responding to an external request that he had not heard. As far as Hilgard was concerned, the person who responded was the “hidden observer.”
One of Hilgard’s subjects made the following interesting statement about what she experienced, making particular reference to what she sensed was her higher self: The hidden observer is cognizant of everything that is going on. . . . The hidden observer sees more, he questions more, he’s aware of what is going on all of the time but getting in touch is totally unnecessary. . . . He’s like a guardian angel that guards you from doing anything that will mess you up. . . . The hidden observer is looking through the tunnel, and sees everything in the tunnel. . . . Unless someone tells me to get in touch with the hidden observer I’m not in contact. It’s just there. (Hilgard, 1977, p. 210) The hidden observer protects us from doing anything in hypnosis that we would not do under any circumstance consciously, such as causing someone else physical harm.

Duality of personality

This idea of the basic duality of human personality is culturally and historically almost universal. The ancient Chinese called these two independent consciousnesses hun and po, the ancient Egyptians the ka and the ba, and the ancient Greeks the Daemon and theEidolon. In each case, the two entities shared their senses and perceptions of the external world but interpreted those perceptions with regard to their own history, knowledge, and personality.
For the Greeks, the relationship was an unequal one. The higher self, the Daemon, acted as a form of guardian angel or higher self over its lower self, the Eidolon. The Stoic philosopher Epictetus wrote: God has placed at every man’s side a guardian, the Daemon of each man, who is charged to watch over him; a Daemon that cannot sleep, nor be deceived. To what greater and more watchful guardian could He have entrusted each of us? So, when you have shut the doors, and made darkness in the house, remember, never to say that you are alone; for you are not alone. But God is there, and your Daemon is there (Epictetus, 1998/2nd century, 14:11) The belief was that the Daemon had foreknowledge of future circumstances and events and as such could warn its Eidolon of the dangers. It was as if in some way the Daemon had already lived the life of its Eidolon.
Wikipedia

Dowsing (a.k.a. divining, doodlebugging, water finding, water witching or water dowsing) has exactly the same underlying mechanism as psychography. A dowser takes a Y- or L-shaped twig or rod, called a dowsing rod (a.k.a. divining rod, vining rod, witching rod, Latin: virgula divina or baculus divinatorius) into his hands and the movement of the dowsing rod supposedly reveals the location of ground water, buried metals or ores, gemstones, oil, gravesites, or other objects and materials. The movement of the dowsing rod is controlled by autonomous neurocluster inside the brain of the dowser, however the dowser has no awareness of this neurocluster inside his own brain and dowser naively believes that some “spiritual force” is moving the dowsing rod. If the dowsing rod is taken from dowsers hands and is put on steady inanimate object (like table, stool, etc) then dowsing rod stops moving. The dowsing rod moves only in the hands of the dowser. Numerous scientific experiments showed that the real effectiveness of the dowsing in finding objects is almost total zero.

Skeptic scientists who investigate the dowsing phenomenon use the term “ideomotor effect” which supposedly explains phenomena like automatic writing, dowsing, facilitated communication, and Ouija boards.
However the truth is that the etymology of the term “ideomotor” (derived from the components “ideo”, meaning "idea" and “motor”, meaning "muscular action") reveals the complete lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena. The etymology of term “ideomotor” means that ideas move the hand of the dowser which raises a simple question: WHOSE ideas move the hand of the dowser? Do the ideas of the dowser move his hand? Do the ideas of the main personality of the dowser move his hand? Experimental facts show that the hand is moved not by the main personality of the dowser. So, the question remains: whose ideas are moving the hand, if it is not the main personality of the dowser? Psychologist/psychiatrists tell us that some vaguely ill-defined “subconscious” moves the hand, and when you ask them to provide the exact scientific definition “what is the subconscious” then they flood you with pseudoscientific self-contradictory blabber about “subconscious” which has no semantic meaning whatsoever – that blabber is not any better than a blabber of the occultists on the same topic.
So let’s fix this mess, let’s make things clear and scientific once and for all. Autonomous neuroclusters inside the brain of the dowser are moving the hand of the dowser. These autonomous neuroclusters inside the brain of the dowser act as independent agents who are able to act independently from the main personality of the dowser.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideomotor_phenomenon
Ideomotor phenomenon is a psychological phenomenon wherein a subject makes motions unconsciously.
An example of table-turning in 19th century France. A circle of participants press their hands against a table, and the ideomotor effect causes the table to tilt in such a way as to produce a written message, in a manner similar to a ouija board.
The ideomotor response (or "ideomotor reflex"), often abbreviated to IMR, is a concept in hypnosis and psychological research. It is derived from the terms "ideo" (idea, or mental representation) and "motor" (muscular action). The phrase is most commonly used in reference to the process whereby a thought or mental image brings about a seemingly "reflexive" or automatic muscular reaction, often of minuscule degree, and potentially outside of the awareness of the subject. As in reflexive responses to pain, the body sometimes reacts reflexively with an ideomotor effect to ideas alone without the person consciously deciding to take action. The effects of automatic writing, dowsing, facilitated communication, and Ouija boards have been attributed to the phenomenon. Mystics have often attributed these effects to paranormal or supernatural force. Many subjects are unconvinced that their actions are originating solely from within themselves.
The associated term "ideo-dynamic response" (or "reflex") applies to a wider domain, an extends to the description of all bodily reactions (including, but not limited to ideo-motor and ideo-sensory responses) caused in a similar manner by certain ideas, e.g., the salivation often caused by imagining sucking a lemon, which is a secretory response. The notion of an ideo-dynamic response contributed to James Braid's first neuro-psychological explanation of the principle through which suggestion operated in hypnotism.

History of scientific investigation

With the rise of Spiritualism in 1840s, mediums devised and refined a variety of techniques for communicating with the spirit world including table-turning and planchette writing boards (the precursor to later Ouija boards). These phenomena and devices quickly became the subject of scientific investigation.
The term Ideomotor was first used in a scientific paper discussing the means through which these spiritualistic phenomena produced effect, by William Benjamin Carpenter in 1852, hence the alternative term Carpenter effect. (Carpenter derived the word ideomotor from the components ideo, meaning "idea" or "mental representation", and motor, meaning "muscular action"). The terms "ideomotor effect" and "ideomotor response" were both introduced by William Benjamin Carpenter. In the paper, Carpenter explained his theory that muscular movement can be independent of conscious desires or emotions.
Carpenter was a friend and collaborator of James Braid, the founder of modern hypnotism. Braid soon adopted Carpenter's ideo-motor terminology, to facilitate the transmission of his most fundamental views, based upon those of his teacher, the philosopher Thomas Brown, that the efficacy of hypnotic suggestion was contingent upon the subject's concentration upon a single (thus, "dominant") idea. In 1855, Braid explained his decision to abandon his earlier term "mono-ideo-motor", based on Carpenter's (1852) "ideo-motor principle", and adopt the more appropriate and more descriptive term "mono-ideo-dynamic". His decision was based upon suggestions made to Carpenter (in 1854), by their friend in common, Daniel Noble, that the activity that Carpenter was describing would be more accurately understood in its wider applications (viz., wider than pendulums and ouija boards) if it were to denominated the "ideo-dynamic principle":

“In order that I may do full justice to two esteemed friends, I beg to state, in connection with this term monoideo-dynamics, that, several years ago, Dr. W. B. Carpenter introduced the term ideo-motor to characterise the reflex or automatic muscular motions which arise merely from ideas associated with motion existing in the mind, without any conscious effort of volition. In 1853, in referring to this term, Dr. Noble said, “Ideo-dynamic would probably constitute a phraseology more appropriate, as applicable to a wider range of phenomena.” In this opinion I quite concurred, because I was well aware that an idea could arrest as well as excite motion automatically, not only in the muscles of voluntary motion, but also as regards the condition of every other function of the body. I have, therefore, adopted the term monoideo-dynamics, as still more comprehensive and characteristic as regards the true mental relations which subsist during all dynamic changes which take place, in every other function of the body, as well as in the muscles of voluntary motion."

Scientific tests by the English scientist Michael Faraday, Manchester surgeon James Braid, the French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul, and the American psychologists William James and Ray Hyman have demonstrated that many phenomena attributed to spiritual or paranormal forces, or to mysterious "energies," are actually due to ideomotor action. Furthermore, these tests demonstrate that "honest, intelligent people can unconsciously engage in muscular activity that is consistent with their expectations". They also show that suggestions that can guide behavior can be given by subtle clues (Hyman 1977).
Some operators use ideomotor responses to communicate with a subject's "unconscious mind" using a system of physical signals (such as finger movements) for the unconscious mind to indicate "yes", "no","I don't know", or "I'm not ready to know that consciously".
A simple experiment to demonstrate the ideomotor effect is to allow a hand-held pendulum to hover over a sheet of paper. The paper has keywords such as YES, NO and MAYBE printed on it. Small movements in the hand, in response to questions, can cause the pendulum to move towards key words on the paper. This technique has been used for experiments in ESP, lie detection, and ouija boards. The validity of these experiments has not been proven. This type of experiment was used by Kreskin and has also been used by illusionists such as Derren Brown.
Wikipedia

The spirit can take control not only over man’s hand but also over man’s voice – and this phenomenon is called “channeling”. During the séance of channeling the timbre of voice and the psychological portrait becomes completely different from the original man, and the man has no control over the words being spoken, very often the man falls into the trance or hypnotic state, however there are some cases when a man remains fully conscious. The phenomenon of channeling is known from ancient times and it was widely practiced in various religious cults beginning from primitive shamanistic till modern day monotheistic religious cults. As for example Bible claims that the first king of the United Kingdom of Israel Saul has used medium necromancer women from En-dor for communication with dead prophet and leader of ancient Israel Samuel (Bible. 1 Samuel 28: 3-20).

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20Samuel%2028&version=ESV
3 Now Samuel had died, and all Israel had mourned for him and buried him in Ramah, his own city. And Saul had put the mediums and the necromancers out of the land.
4 The Philistines assembled and came and encamped at Shunem. And Saul gathered all Israel, and they encamped at Gilboa.
5 When Saul saw the army of the Philistines, he was afraid, and his heart trembled greatly.
6 And when Saul inquired of the Lord, the Lord did not answer him, either by dreams, or by Urim, or by prophets.
7 Then Saul said to his servants, “Seek out for me a woman who is a medium, that I may go to her and inquire of her.” And his servants said to him, “Behold, there is a medium at En-dor.”
8 So Saul disguised himself and put on other garments and went, he and two men with him. And they came to the woman by night. And he said, “Divine for me by a spirit and bring up for me whomever I shall name to you.”
9 The woman said to him, “Surely you know what Saul has done, how he has cut off the mediums and the necromancers from the land. Why then are you laying a trap for my life to bring about my death?”
10 But Saul swore to her by the Lord, “As the Lord lives, no punishment shall come upon you for this thing.”
11 Then the woman said, “Whom shall I bring up for you?” He said, “Bring up Samuel for me.”
12 When the woman saw Samuel, she cried out with a loud voice. And the woman said to Saul, “Why have you deceived me? You are Saul.”
13 The king said to her, “Do not be afraid. What do you see?” And the woman said to Saul, “I see a god coming up out of the earth.”
14 He said to her, “What is his appearance?” And she said, “An old man is coming up, and he is wrapped in a robe.” And Saul knew that it was Samuel, and he bowed with his face to the ground and paid homage.
15 Then Samuel said to Saul, “Why have you disturbed me by bringing me up?” Saul answered, “I am in great distress, for the Philistines are warring against me, and God has turned away from me and answers me no more, either by prophets or by dreams. Therefore I have summoned you to tell me what I shall do.”
16 And Samuel said, “Why then do you ask me, since the Lord has turned from you and become your enemy?
17 The Lord has done to you as he spoke by me, for the Lord has torn the kingdom out of your hand and given it to your neighbor, David.
18 Because you did not obey the voice of the Lord and did not carry out his fierce wrath against Amalek, therefore the Lord has done this thing to you this day.
19 Moreover, the Lord will give Israel also with you into the hand of the Philistines, and tomorrow you and your sons shall be with me. The Lord will give the army of Israel also into the hand of the Philistines.”
20 Then Saul fell at once full length on the ground, filled with fear because of the words of Samuel. And there was no strength in him, for he had eaten nothing all day and all night. 
Bible. 1 Samuel 28:3-20

Blindsight is another important phenomenon which reveals physiological mechanisms of the brain.
Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex (a.k.a. primary visual cortex or V1) to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.
Blindsight is a phenomenon when visual stimuli does not reach man’s main personality and a man claims that he is unable to see. The main difference of the blindsight from the full blindness is that despite a man claims he cannot see anything, however the same man can avoid obstacles when moving in complex surroundings. When a blindsighted man is asked how he managed to avoid obstacles if he does not see anything, he explains that he has simply relied on his intuition and guessing. However the percentage of blindsighted patient’s correct guessing greatly exceeds the probability of random blind guessing. There are two types of blindsight. In Type 1, subjects have absolutely no awareness of any stimuli, but, if forced to “guess”, can predict (at levels significantly above chance) aspects of a visual stimulus, such as location or type of movement. In Type 2 blindsight, subjects have some awareness, for example, of movement within the blind area, but no visual percept. Blindsight phenomenon challenges what once was believed to be true, that perceptions must enter main personality to affect the behavior. Blindsight proves that man’s behavior can be guided by sensory information of which he is completely unaware.
Blindsight phenomenon clearly shows that the brain contains independent autonomous neuroclusters which process visual information completely autonomously and can control movements of the body completely autonomously and independently, as for example they can guide blindsighted man through the corridor full of obstacles avoiding all obstacles in the way while man’s main personality remains completely unaware and has no control over this process.

The phenomenon of “memories of past lives” (a.k.a. “reincarnation”) and the phenomenon of “prophetic dreams” have exactly the same underlying mechanisms as the “deja vu”. There are several underlying mechanisms. Let’s list some of them.

Mechanism # 1: False stories (fakes) – not interesting, so we will not dwell into that.

Mechanism # 2: Perceptual blindness and the transfer of information from autonomous neuroclusters into the main personality (under special conditions: during the dream, during prolonged sensory deprivation, during prolonged fasting, by disturbing the equilibrium of biochemical reactions inside the brain, by using special techniques, etc).

Almost everybody has encountered in their lives a phenomenon of “perceptual blindness” (a.k.a. inattentional blindness) when a man is looking for some object and that object lies just in the front of man’s eyes however man does not see it. It is important to note here that the object lying in the front of the eyes is not seen only by the main personality however the autonomous neuroclusters (a.k.a. “subconscious”) may see this object and can remember its location. When a man goes to sleep, then during the dream the autonomous neuroclusters can forward information about the object to the main personality. When a man awakes and checks the information which he has received in the dream and when he finds out that information received in the dream is correct – then the man has no idea how he has received this information so the man decides that the source of this information is “spiritual worlds” or the God himself. However the reality is much simpler. The valuable information which he has received during the dream in reality has nothing to do with the God. Some time ago this information was simply lying in front of the man’s eyes however the main personality was blind to it and did not see it and after some time autonomous neuroclusters forwarded that information to the main personality during the dreaming process. The transfer of information from autonomous neuroclusters into the main personality usually happens in situations of “extreme importance”, for example when a man was very intensively praying and asking the God to reveal some very needed information. During the dream the main personality receives the requested information from autonomous neuroclusters and when a man awakes from a dream he becomes strongly convinced that the God himself has provided the requested information. As for example, the dream character can tell a man where he needs to look for the lost keys, which were lost a week ago and a man was unable to find these keys despite he was desperately searching for them over the week, and after waking up the man will find the keys in the specified location. Due to the ignorance and lack of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms of the brain the man is unable to explain the source of information which he has received – and the God (or other spiritual beings) is the only explanation which he can think of.

Here is the documentary movie which shows the perceptual blindness experiment.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo

selective attention test
Length: 2 minutes

The original, world-famous awareness test from Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris. Check out our book and website for more information (www.theinvisiblegorilla.com)

For more movies about perceptual blindness experiments please click here.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inattentional_blindness
Inattentional blindness, also known as perceptual blindness, is a psychological lack of attention and is not associated with any vision defects or deficits. It may be further defined as the event in which an individual fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight. The term was coined by Arien Mack and Irvin Rock in 1992 and was used as the title of their book of the same name, published by MIT press in 1998. Here, they describe the discovery of inattentional blindness and include a collection of procedures used describing the phenomenon. Research on inattentional blindness suggests that the phenomenon can occur in any individual, independent of cognitive deficits. When it simply becomes impossible for one to attend to all the stimuli in a given situation, a temporary blindness effect can take place as a result; that is, individuals fail to see objects or stimuli that are unexpected and quite often salient.
Inattentional blindness also has an effect on people’s perception. There have been numerous experiments performed that demonstrate this phenomenon.
Wikipedia

Mechanism # 3: «false positive» errors. The brain is a parallel computing machine which sometimes fails to cope with computational tasks of pattern recognition – sometimes this computing machine produces the “false positive” error in the output. These resulting “false positive” errors are actually the phenomenon of “deja vu”.

We will explain in more detail what is the “false positive” error, because it is very important to know and understand what it is, however the average reader has never even heard of it.
The clearest example is a computer which identifies/recognizes people (biometric identification by facial image).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics
Biometrics refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication (or realistic authentication) is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. Biometric identifiers are often categorized as physiological versus behavioral characteristics. Physiological characteristics are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, palm veins, face recognition, DNA, palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent. Behavioral characteristics are related to the pattern of behavior of a person, including but not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice.
Wikipedia

When such a computer is provided with a photo image of a man, the computer begins to search the database in order to find out whether this man is present in the database or not.
And here (due to various reasons), the computer can make the wrong conclusion that this man is already present in the database under such and such name, although in reality this man is a complete stranger who is not present in the database.
In other words, the computer made the wrong identification of a person – a complete stranger was misrecognized as a “longtime well known friend” and such error is called the “false positive” error.
The task of programmers who write biometric recognition programs is to minimize (as much as possible) the probability of “false positive” errors. Although it is impossible to completely get rid of “false positive” errors, however you can try to reduce the likelihood of such “false positive” errors.

The translation into plain English – when the computer makes “false positive” recognition error, the computer is actually experiencing the “deja vu” – the computer is thinking that “I had already seen this man before” when in reality the computer has never seen this man before.

The same identical situation happens with the human brain.
The brain is a parallel computing machine which sometimes fails to cope with computational tasks of pattern recognition – sometimes this computing machine produces the “false positive” error in the output. These resulting “false positive” errors are actually the phenomenon of “deja vu”. As a result, the man experiences the phenomenon of “deja vu” – i.e. man experiences the feeling that “I had already seen/heard it” and/or “I had already been here before”, when in reality he has never been here before and he has never seen/heard it before.

I.e., the translation into plain English – “deja vu” is just a glitch of the brain.
To put it more scientifically: “deja vu” is just a “false positive” error during pattern recognition which happens in a parallel computing machine (in the brain).
If expressed in the terminology of cybernetics: if a man often feels a sense of “deja vu” then this indicates the malfunction of his parallel computing machine (his brain).
If expressed in the terminology of medicine: if a man often feels a sense of “deja vu” then this man meets the diagnostic criteria of serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, etc.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_I_and_type_II_errors
In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis (a "false positive", i.e., accepting a false hypothesis as correct), while a type II error is the failure to reject a false null hypothesis (a "false negative", i.e., rejecting a true hypothesis as incorrect).
<...>
Biometric matching, such as for fingerprint recognition, facial recognition or iris recognition, is susceptible to type I and type II errors. The null hypothesis is that the input does identify someone in the searched list of people, so:
  ● the probability of type I errors is called the "false reject rate" (FRR) or false non-match rate (FNMR),
  ● while the probability of type II errors is called the "false accept rate" (FAR) or false match rate (FMR).
If the system is designed to rarely match suspects then the probability of type II errors can be called the "false alarm rate". On the other hand, if the system is used for validation (and acceptance is the norm) then the FAR is a measure of system security, while the FRR measures user inconvenience level.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_positives_and_false_negatives
In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease (the result is positive), when in reality it is not, while a false negative is an error in which a test result improperly indicates no presence of a condition (the result is negative), when in reality it is present. These are the two kinds of errors in a binary test (and are contrasted with a correct result, either a true positive or a true negative.) They are also known in medicine as a false positive (respectively negative) diagnosis, and in statistical classification as a false positive (respectively negative) error.
In statistical hypothesis testing the analogous concepts are known as type I and type II errors, where a positive result corresponds to rejecting the null hypothesis, and a negative result corresponds to not rejecting the null hypothesis. The terms are often used interchangeably, but there are differences in detail and interpretation due to the differences between medical testing and statistical hypothesis testing.
<…>
False positive error
A false positive error, or in short false positive, commonly called a "false alarm", is a result that indicates a given condition has been fulfilled, when it actually has not been fulfilled. I.e. erroneously a positive effect has been assumed. In the case of "crying wolf" – the condition tested for was "is there a wolf near the herd?", the actual result was that there had not been a wolf near the herd. The shepherd wrongly indicated there was one, by calling "Wolf, wolf!".
A false positive error is a type I error where the test is checking a single condition, and results in an affirmative or negative decision usually designated as "true or false".
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Déjà_vu
Déjà vu, (/ˌdeɪʒɑː ˈvuː/) from French, literally "already seen", is the phenomenon of having the strong sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced has been experienced in the past, whether it has actually happened or not.

Scientific research
The psychologist Edward B. Titchener in his book A Textbook of Psychology (1928), explained déjà vu as caused by a person having a brief glimpse of an object or situation, before the brain has completed "constructing" a full conscious perception of the experience. Such a "partial perception" then results in a false sense of familiarity. Scientific approaches reject the explanation of déjà vu as "precognition" or "prophecy", but rather explain it as an anomaly of memory, which creates a distinct impression that an experience is "being recalled". This explanation is supported by the fact that the sense of "recollection" at the time is strong in most cases, but that the circumstances of the "previous" experience (when, where, and how the earlier experience occurred) are uncertain or believed to be impossible.

As time passes, subjects may exhibit a strong recollection of having the "unsettling" experience of déjà vu itself, but little or no recollection of the specifics of the event(s) or circumstance(s) which were the subject of the déjà vu experience itself (the events that were being "remembered"). This may result from an "overlap" between the neurological systems responsible for short-term memory and those responsible for long-term memory, resulting in (memories of) recent events erroneously being perceived as being in the more distant past. One theory is the events are stored into memory before the conscious part of the brain even receives the information and processes it. However, this explanation has been criticized that the brain would not be able to store information without a sensory input first. Another theory suggests the brain may process sensory input (perhaps all sensory input) as a "memory-in-progress", and that therefore during the event itself one believes it to be a past memory. In a survey, Brown had concluded that approximately two-thirds of the population have had déjà vu experiences. Other studies confirm that déjà vu is a common experience in healthy individuals, with between 31% and 96% of individuals reporting it. Déjà vu experiences that are unusually prolonged or frequent, or in association with other symptoms such as hallucinations, may be an indicator of neurological or psychiatric illness.

Links with disorders
Early researchers tried to establish a link between déjà vu and serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociative identity disorder, but failed to find correlations of any diagnostic value. There does not seem to be a special association between déjà vu and schizophrenia or other psychiatric conditions. The strongest pathological association of déjà vu is with temporal lobe epilepsy. This correlation has led some researchers to speculate that the experience of déjà vu is possibly a neurological anomaly related to improper electrical discharge in the brain. As most people suffer a mild (i.e. non-pathological) epileptic episode regularly (e.g. a hypnagogic jerk, the sudden "jolt" that frequently, but not always, occurs just prior to falling asleep), it is conjectured that a similar (mild) neurological aberration occurs in the experience of déjà vu, resulting in an erroneous sensation of memory. Scientists have even looked into genetics when considering déjà vu. Although there is not currently a gene associated with déjà vu, the LGII gene on chromosome 10 is being studied for a possible link. Certain forms of the gene are associated with a mild form of epilepsy and, though by no means a certainty, déjà vu occurs often enough during seizures that researchers have reason to suspect a link.
Wikipedia

The mechanism # 4: False memory – various failures (both natural and artificial) in the brain lead to false memories.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_memory
False memory is the psychological phenomenon in which a person recalls a memory that did not actually occur. False memory is often considered in legal cases regarding childhood sexual abuse. This phenomenon was initially investigated by psychological pioneers Pierre Janet and Sigmund Freud. Freud wrote The Aetiology of Hysteria, where he discussed repressed memories of childhood sexual trauma in their relation to hysteria. Elizabeth Loftus has, since her debuting research project in 1974, been a lead researcher in memory recovery and false memories. False memory syndrome recognizes false memory as a prevalent part of one's life in which it affects the person's mentality and day-to-day life. False memory syndrome differs from false memory in that the syndrome is heavily influential in the orientation of a person's life, while false memory can occur without this significant effect. The syndrome takes effect because the person believes the influential memory to be true. However, its research is controversial and the syndrome is excluded from identification as a mental disorder and, therefore, is also excluded from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. False memory is an important part of psychological research because of the ties it has to a large number of mental disorders, such as PTSD.
Wikipedia

Careful scientific investigation of all cases of “memories of past lives” revealed that none of cases were confirmed.
Below are several examples of such cases.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G__LfUxdVUQ

The Boy who Lived before. Extraordinary people. 720p. Documentary & Life Discovery HD.
Length: 48 minutes

It is very important to note the law which governs all “revelations from the God” – the information received from so called “divine sources” never exceeds or surpasses mankind’s scientific/technical knowledge of that period of time when “revelation from God” was received. Let’s analyze all ancient sacred scriptures (Bible, Quran, Vedas, etc) – all these scriptures contain texts about the creation of living organisms where all types of creatures are listed – birds, mammals, fishes, etc – however there is not a single word mentioned about microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, etc). It is important to note that microorganisms play a vital role in the Earth’s ecosystem – the extermination of microorganisms would lead to the collapse of the Earth’s ecosystem. It is obvious that when the creator of the universe and the creator of all living organisms is telling humans about the creation of all living things he should surely mention creatures which are so small that the human eye cannot see. However not a single word about microorganisms is mentioned in all ancient sacred scriptures. This raises a question: why microorganisms are not mentioned? The answer is simple: ancient people did not know that microorganisms exist. However even if we ignore the absence of description about the microorganisms which are so small that the human eye cannot see, the sacred scriptures are teeming with errors about biological life, as for example Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (Bhāgavata Purāṇa) claims that human fetus grows and remains in abominable residence of stools and urine, which is the breeding place of all kinds of worms (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 3.31.5 and SB: 3.31.17), The Talmud claims that lice do not reproduce and that lice emerge from human’s sweat (Masechet Shabbat 107b), and so on.

http://vedabase.com/en/sb/3/31/5/
http://vedabase.com/en/sb/3/31/17/
http://vedabase.net/sb/3/31/5/
http://vedabase.net/sb/3/31/17/
SB: 3.31.5: Deriving its nutrition from the food and drink taken by the mother, the fetus grows and remains in that abominable residence of stools and urine, which is the breeding place of all kinds of worms.
SB: 3.31.17: Fallen into a pool of blood, stool and urine within the abdomen of his mother, his own body scorched by the mother's gastric fire, the embodied soul, anxious to get out, counts his months and prays, "O my Lord, when shall I, a wretched soul, be released from this confinement?"
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (Bhāgavata Purāṇa). Chapter 31: Lord Kapila's Instructions on the Movements of the Living Entities. SB: 3.31.5 and SB: 3.31.17

http://www.daatemet.org/articles/article.cfm?article_id=1&LANG=en
In Masechet Shabbat 107b it is said “A louse does not reproduce,” and therefore, according to the Sages, one is permitted to kill it on Shabbat. And on page 12b it states: “Rabbah killed them” (Rashi’s commentary: “killed them even on Sabbath,” the reason being that lice do not reproduce, but “from the flesh of man they swarm,” end of quote.)
And the Tosfot there says: Lest he kill — it is written that there are two types of lice, the black jumping louse which is created from the dust, as is written “Hit the dust of the ground and it will become lice,” and there is another type, swarming head lice which do not reproduce, but come from the sweat of man. And the Rosh, in chapter one, section 29, says: One may kill white head lice which come from old clothes.
The Ran also writes: “Rav Huna said: ‘and all the fleas’ is the jumping louse, and should you ask why is the jumper forbidden, as it is from the dust and does not reproduce, it should be said that this principle serves us only to exclude vermin created from mold, such as lice -- but all that is created from dust has vitality in it, as though it had reproduced from male and female, and one who kills it on Shabbat is liable,” end of quote.
It follows from what is written that, according to Chazal, the louse does not reproduce but they were divided as to how it was created. According to Rashi it is created from man’s flesh, according to the Tosfos from the sweat of man, according to the Rosh from old clothes, and according to the Ran from mold. (A flea, according to some of the Rishonim, is created from dust.)
We will add and emphasize that the Gemara in Shabbat, on page 107b, asks: “And does the louse not reproduce? Yet it is said: G-d sits and nourishes all, from the karnei re’emim to the eggs of lice” (meaning that there are eggs from which come lice, and therefore lice do reproduce). And they explained it: “There is a creature which is called “eggs of lice” (that is, there is a different type of insect whose name is “eggs of lice”) and this answer proves how resolved Chazal were in their opinion that lice do not reproduce through procreation, but are created from inanimate matter.
After we brought these things to the attention of those who seek truth, some dialecticians tried to find in them a flaw. When they found no aid in the halachic writings, they went to external literature. They did well to go to science texts, for there you will find research and examination with no favoritism, only research for its own sake. They brought, from the Encyclopedia HaChai V’HaTzomeach Shel Eretz Yisrael (Ministry of Defense Publishing — the book is found in every public library and is well worth reading), that “there are lice which reproduce by parthenogenesis.” And you, the wise student who shows no favoritism, come and see how your rabbis answer — we claim apples and they answer oranges. Or, perhaps, they didn’t understand what they read at all, or even worse. Parthenogenesis is sexual reproduction, but the female provides the impregnating material to the egg she produces. Is this “creation from mold”? Is this reproduction in which there is no resemblance between the inanimate material which births and the living thing which is born? Something born through parthenogenesis is exactly like the being which birthed it. On the other hand, what similarity is there between mold (or flesh, sweat, or rags) and a living, crawling louse?
Their explanations are worth nothing — quite the opposite. They’ve strengthened our words, that spontaneous creation of life from the inanimate, to which sages had attributed the louse, never has happened.
And we will add that the other lice mentioned by the dialecticians are said, in the encyclopedia, to mainly exist on birds, and few exist on mammals; and there is no way they can survive on humans. Therefore, of course, they have no relation to this topic which deals with lice on people’s heads and clothing.
Daat Emet's Pamphlet 1

The sacred scriptures do not contain any information which exceeds or surpasses mankind’s scientific/technical knowledge of that period of time when “revelation from god” was received – and the reason of that is very simple – the source of the information provided in the sacred scripture is not the God which created the universe but instead the autonomous neuroclusters which reside inside the brain of the “divinely inspired” author who wrote the sacred scripture. However religious adepts devote their entire lifetimes, sacrifice their time, resources, health and even their lives studying writings of such “divinely inspired” authors naively believing that they will gain the knowledge of “absolute truth” which will lead them directly to God/heaven/etc.

The number of religious cults is very huge and it is physically impossible to study all the intricate details of the dogmas of these myriads of cults. However the theological dogmatism of majority of these cults parasitizes on the mainstream sacred scriptures, the number of which is small – Bible, Quran, Vedas, etc. This means that if you want to be able to deal with theology of cults then you must be proficient in theology of mainstream sacred scriptures (Bible, Quran, Vedas, etc). The exposition of the errors and bugs in theology of mainstream sacred scriptures (Bible, Quran, Vedas, etc) has extremely devastating and crushing effect on theology of religious cults. The fundamental bug in the theology of all religions/cults is that they claim that their sacred scriptures contain no errors, they claim that there is not a single error in writings of founder of their religion. Thus if you will show at least one error in their sacred scriptures then their whole dogmatic system begins to quake and to collapse.
When debating the religious adept the most important thing is to use the dictionary/terms of his religion/cult – this is the only way to achieve success in the debate. If you will use atheistic dictionary/terms and atheistic arguments or if you will use dictionary/terms from other religion then this will have zero effect on the adept. You must speak in the language which the adept is able to understand – this is of the utmost importance, and the one and only language which the adept is able to understand is the dictionary/terms of his religious cult.
The only difference between religions and cults is the number of adepts – if the number of adepts is small then it is called “the cult”, and if the number of adepts is large then it is called “the religion”. When the number of adepts is small then religious leaders use more aggressive and more destructive techniques to extract money and property from the adepts thus involvement in cult activity is more dangerous than involvement in religion. As for example, in the early days of Christian Church the number of adepts was small so apostles of Jesus extorted money and property from the adepts and killed adepts who do not give all their money (Acts 4:32-37; 5:1-11), however later when Christian Church became more widespread such drastic open extortion through coercion was no longer necessary and Christian Church switched to more civilized activity.

To read about some contradictions in the Bible please click here.
To read about some contradictions in the Quran please click here.
To read about some contradictions and errors in theology of the Holy Spirit please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of Christianity please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of Islam please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of Judaism please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of Hinduism please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of ISKCON (a.k.a. Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas) please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of Urantia Book please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of Трехлебов Алексей Васильевич (Ведаман Ведагор) (in Russian) please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of КОБ (Концепция Общественной Безопасности) (in Russian) please click here.
To read about some errors in theology of various cults please click here.

It is very easy to prove that intelligence level of the “voice of God” is very low. All you need to do is to go to the people who claim that they can communicate with the “voice from heaven”, “voice of cosmos”, “angel Gabriel”, angels, gods, etc, and then you need to check the IQ level of that “voice from heaven” using tasks from school textbooks and you will see that “voice from heaven” is incapable to solve even simplest tasks from school textbooks, the “voice from heaven” is able only to babble inconsistent nonsense using phrases like “be obedient, be humble, increase your spirituality, love is everywhere, use spiritual energy from cosmos, Atlantis, Shambala, Pleiadians, quantum reality, etc” – the repertory of “divine sources” is limited to such kind of worthless babble.
The “voice of God” claims that he is God who created universe and all living beings, however if you will ask him simple questions like “how many teeth does the rabbit have?”, the “voice of God” will fail to provide the correct answer. This leads to simple conclusion: if he is the God who created universe and created all living beings then he must surely know how many teeth the rabbit has, otherwise he is not the omniscient creator of all living beings. When the “voice of God” is asked simple testing questions, like what is the number of teeth in various animals, the “voice of God” begins to ramble. Try that and you will see it yourself.
Several dental formulae examples are provided here.

Religious adepts believe that all prophecies written in Holy Scriptures are always fulfilled. As for example Christians believe that all biblical prophecies were fulfilled or will be fulfilled in future. It is very easy to show that this claim is not true. As for example let’s have a look at prophecies written in Old Testament. In Ezekiel 30:10-12 Ezekiel predicts that King of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar will destroy Egypt and the Nile River will run dry up.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ezekiel+30&version=ESV
10 “Thus says the Lord God: “I will put an end to the wealth of Egypt, by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon.
11 He and his people with him, the most ruthless of nations, shall be brought in to destroy the land, and they shall draw their swords against Egypt and fill the land with the slain.
12 And I will dry up the Nile and will sell the land into the hand of evildoers; I will bring desolation upon the land and everything in it, by the hand of foreigners; I am the Lord; I have spoken.
Bible. Ezekiel 30:10-12

However, historical records show that in 601 BC and 568 BC Nebuchadnezzar tried to invade the Egypt however Nebuchadnezzar was defeated by Egyptian army. Egypt was never conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. Also historical and geological records show that Nile River has never dried up.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Nebuchadnezzar.aspx
Nebuchadnezzar's Conquests
In 601 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar attempted the invasion of Egypt but was repulsed with heavy losses. Judah rebelled, but Jerusalem fell in March 597 B.C., and the ruler, Jehoiakim, and his court were deported to Babylon. Eight years later another Jewish rebellion broke out; this time Jerusalem was razed and the population carried into captivity. Expeditions against the Arabs in 582 B.C. and another attempt at invading Egypt in 568 B.C. receive brief mention in Nebuchadnezzar's later records.
"Nebuchadnezzar." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Encyclopedia.com.

Usually religious adepts try to explain failed biblical prophecies with an argument that “this prophecy will be fulfilled in future”. However prophecy of Ezekiel 30:10-12 cannot be fulfilled in future by definition because Nebuchadnezzar is already dead and prophecy explicitly states that it is Nebuchadnezzar who must destroy the Egypt.

Usually Christians totally ignore failed prophecies of Old Testament, because according to Christian dogmas the Old Testament is no longer valid, according to Christian dogmas Jesus canceled the Old Testament and established New Testament thus all references to Old Testament are invalid by definition.
So let’s a have a closer look at the prophecies of New Testament. In Matthew 24:1-34 (and also in Mark 13:24-31, Mark 9:1, Luke 9:23-27) Jesus makes prophecies that: 1) the Second Coming of Jesus, 2) “End of the World”, and 3) Judgment Day are going to happen within the lifetime of people then living in that area (“this generation will not pass away until all these things take place”). However all theses prophecies of Jesus have failed – the generation of Jesus have all died out without ever seeing the fulfillment of prophecies of Jesus.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+24&version=ESV
1 Jesus left the temple and was going away, when his disciples came to point out to him the buildings of the temple.
2 But he answered them, “You see all these, do you not? Truly, I say to you, there will not be left here one stone upon another that will not be thrown down.”
3 As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?”
4 And Jesus answered them, “See that no one leads you astray.
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27 For as the lightning comes from the east and shines as far as the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.
28 Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather.
29 “Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
30 Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
31 And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
32 “From the fig tree learn its lesson: as soon as its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near.
33 So also, when you see all these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates.
34 Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.
35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.
Bible. Matthew 24:1-34

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+13&version=ESV
24 “But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light,
25 and the stars will be falling from heaven, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken.
26 And then they will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory.
27 And then he will send out the angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven.
28 “From the fig tree learn its lesson: as soon as its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near.
29 So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that he is near, at the very gates.
30 Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.
31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.
Bible. Mark 13:24-31

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+9&version=ESV
1 And he said to them, “Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God after it has come with power.”
Bible. Mark 9:1

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+9&version=ESV
23 And he said to all, “If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me.
24 For whoever would save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it.
25 For what does it profit a man if he gains the whole world and loses or forfeits himself?
26 For whoever is ashamed of me and of my words, of him will the Son of Man be ashamed when he comes in his glory and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.
27 But I tell you truly, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God.”
Bible. Luke 9:23-27

The God Yahweh/Jehovah said very clearly in the Bible: if the prophecy is not fulfilled then such prophet is a false prophet (Deuteronomy 18:20-22), which means that Jesus is a false prophet according to the God Yahweh/Jehovah.
This raises a simple question: how can we trust Jesus who is a false prophet? However Christians trust Jesus despite the fact that New Testament clearly states that Jesus is a false prophet.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Deuteronomy+18&version=ESV
20 But the prophet who presumes to speak a word in my name that I have not commanded him to speak, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.’
21 And if you say in your heart, ‘How may we know the word that the Lord has not spoken?’—
22 when a prophet speaks in the name of the Lord, if the word does not come to pass or come true, that is a word that the Lord has not spoken; the prophet has spoken it presumptuously. You need not be afraid of him.
Bible. Deuteronomy 18:20-22

To read more about some failed biblical prophecies please click here.

When a man is in the normal awareness state his brain keeps active the brain zones which “criticize” the surroundings – too hot, too cold, too dark, too bright, too tight, etc. The necessity for such “criticism” has a good explanation in the theory of Artificial Intelligence – without mechanism of “criticism” the agent becomes apathetic, the agent does not take any action in order to improve the current situation, and as a result the agent perishes because of the changing surrounding factors. In other words, the mechanism of “criticism” is necessary in order for the agent would survive in the surrounding conditions which are changing.
In biological brain it is possible to turn off (or partially subdue) the “critics” and force them stop “criticizing”. This can be checked by the following experiment. When you go to sleep you need to put the headphones on with music turned on and then close the eyes and sleep. During the REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep stage there are high chances that the music played via headphones will come into the plot of the dream when the “critics” are turned off – the result will be that you will hear super magnificent divine music which will be the most beautiful music which you have ever heard during your entire life. After awakening if you will still remember your dream (technical problem is that not all dreams can be recalled) you will have the remembrance of super magnificent divine music. If you will listen to the same music again when you are awake – you will find that the same exact music is not so divinely beautiful after all – some notes will appear to sound ugly, some instruments will sound too loud or to quiet, etc. However during the dream when all “critics” are turned off – and no matter what crap is playing – it will appear like super magnificent divinely beautiful music.
The physiological mechanism of the brain – the possibility to turn off the “critics” in the brain – is the reason why the majority of artists are winos and dependant on alcohol/tobacco/narcotics/etc. After drinking of alcohol (or taking of narcotics) in dizziness state the “critics” in the brain become turned off and as the result any crap which is painted/composed/etc begins to appear like super magnificent and divinely beautiful. As the result the artist becomes strongly convinced that drinking of alcohol (or taking of narcotics) helps to create the art and provides artistic inspiration. Artistic inspiration plays a vital role in the survival of the artist so the artist begins to use alcohol (tobacco/narcotics/etc) more and more often in order to get more “artistic inspiration” and as the result the artist becomes a totally wino.

http://georgeorwellnovels.com/journalism/review-of-a-modern-de-quincey/
What are the pleasures of opium? Like other pleasures, they are, unfortunately, indescribable. It is easier to describe the miseries which the smoker suffers when deprived of his drug; he is seized with feverish restlessness, then with violent fits of yawning, and finally howls like a dog, a noise so distressing that when an opium-smoker is imprisoned in an Indian jail he is usually, quite illegally, given diminishing doses to keep him quiet. Like many other smokers, Captain Robinson felt himself, while under the influence of the drug, to be possessed of almost divine wisdom. He was aware that he not only knew the secret of the Universe, but had reduced this secret to a single sentence, which he was unfortunately never able to recall when he woke up. One night, so as to make sure of remembering it, he took a pad and pencil when he lay down to smoke. The sentence in which all wisdom was contained turned out to be: “the banana is great, but the skin is greater.”
Review of “A Modern de Quincey” by Captain H. R. Robinson
A review by George Orwell in The Observer, 13 September 1942.

The next law which governs “revelations from the God” is based on the same physiological mechanism of the brain – when a man enters “spiritual words” – the “critics” in the brain are turned off and as the result even the most banal and pathetic ideas begin to look like super-mega divine wisdom. The repertory of “wisdom” in such “divine revelations” is extremely miserable and pathetic – like for example “be obedient”, “be humble”, “do not steal”, “do not kill”, etc – all these ideas were already known a long time ago, however a man which receives “divine revelation” sees these banal ideas as the most revolutionary discovery of the humankind which no man on the Earth had ever heard before. These messages from so claimed “super-intelligence” like “do not steal, do not kill, etc” do not need any supernatural source because it is enough to have elementary nous in order to understand that members of community must keep at least minimal order in behavior patterns of the community or otherwise this community will destruct itself from the inside even without any external enemy. However here lies a technical problem – how the members of the community can be forced to obey the code of the behavior? The most effective way is to declare that the code of the behavior was given by the God himself and because people are afraid of the God, they will be forced to obey the “commandments of the God”.

The most common source of “divine revelations” are simple dreams during which “critics” in the brain are turned off.
As for example, in Bible the God tells that God speaks to man “in a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falls on men, while they slumber on their beds”.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Job+33&version=ESV
14 For God speaks in one way, and in two, though man does not perceive it.
15 In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falls on men, while they slumber on their beds,
Bible. Job 33:14-15

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers+12&version=ESV
5 And the Lord came down in a pillar of cloud and stood at the entrance of the tent and called Aaron and Miriam, and they both came forward.
6 And he said, “Hear my words: If there is a prophet among you, I the Lord make myself known to him in a vision; I speak with him in a dream.
Bible. Numbers 12:5-6

The majority of meetings with God/angels/demons/etc happen during falling asleep, wakening up or while being in the deep sleep state. As for example, King Solomon in the dream received wisdom from God and became “the wisest man who ever lived”. Let’s raise the simple question: does the dream of King Solomon really proves that he is “the wisest man who ever lived”? The answer is obvious – the dream of the person is not the proof that this person is “the wisest man who ever lived”.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+3&version=ESV
5 At Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream by night, and God said, “Ask what I shall give you.”
6 And Solomon said, “You have shown great and steadfast love to your servant David my father, because he walked before you in faithfulness, in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart toward you. And you have kept for him this great and steadfast love and have given him a son to sit on his throne this day.
7 And now, O Lord my God, you have made your servant king in place of David my father, although I am but a little child. I do not know how to go out or come in.
8 And your servant is in the midst of your people whom you have chosen, a great people, too many to be numbered or counted for multitude.
9 Give your servant therefore an understanding mind to govern your people, that I may discern between good and evil, for who is able to govern this your great people?”
10 It pleased the Lord that Solomon had asked this.
11 And God said to him, “Because you have asked this, and have not asked for yourself long life or riches or the life of your enemies, but have asked for yourself understanding to discern what is right,
12 behold, I now do according to your word. Behold, I give you a wise and discerning mind, so that none like you has been before you and none like you shall arise after you.
13 I give you also what you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that no other king shall compare with you, all your days.
14 And if you will walk in my ways, keeping my statutes and my commandments, as your father David walked, then I will lengthen your days.”
15 And Solomon awoke, and behold, it was a dream. Then he came to Jerusalem and stood before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings, and made a feast for all his servants.
Bible. 1 Kings 3:5-15

Here are more examples from Bible showing that God/angels come to a man in a dream.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+20&version=ESV
3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream by night and said to him, “Behold, you are a dead man because of the woman whom you have taken, for she is a man's wife.”
4 Now Abimelech had not approached her. So he said, “Lord, will you kill an innocent people?
5 Did he not himself say to me, ‘She is my sister’? And she herself said, ‘He is my brother.’ In the integrity of my heart and the innocence of my hands I have done this.”
6 Then God said to him in the dream, “Yes, I know that you have done this in the integrity of your heart, and it was I who kept you from sinning against me. Therefore I did not let you touch her.
7 Now then, return the man's wife, for he is a prophet, so that he will pray for you, and you shall live. But if you do not return her, know that you shall surely die, you and all who are yours.”
Bible. Genesis 20:3-7

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+31&version=ESV
10 In the breeding season of the flock I lifted up my eyes and saw in a dream that the goats that mated with the flock were striped, spotted, and mottled.
11 Then the angel of God said to me in the dream, ‘Jacob,’ and I said, ‘Here I am!’
12 And he said, ‘Lift up your eyes and see, all the goats that mate with the flock are striped, spotted, and mottled, for I have seen all that Laban is doing to you.
13 I am the God of Bethel, where you anointed a pillar and made a vow to me. Now arise, go out from this land and return to the land of your kindred.’”
Bible. Genesis 31:10-13

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+2&version=ESV
11 And going into the house they saw the child with Mary his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Then, opening their treasures, they offered him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh.
12 And being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they departed to their own country by another way.
13 Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, “Rise, take the child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, and remain there until I tell you, for Herod is about to search for the child, to destroy him.”
Bible. Matthew 2:11-13

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+19&version=ESV
5 And he lay down and slept under a broom tree. And behold, an angel touched him and said to him, “Arise and eat.”
6 And he looked, and behold, there was at his head a cake baked on hot stones and a jar of water. And he ate and drank and lay down again.
7 And the angel of the Lord came again a second time and touched him and said, “Arise and eat, for the journey is too great for you.”
8 And he arose and ate and drank, and went in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights to Horeb, the mount of God.
9 There he came to a cave and lodged in it. And behold, the word of the Lord came to him, and he said to him, “What are you doing here, Elijah?”
Bible. 1 Kings 19:5-9

Many leaders of religious cults had been having chronic epileptic seizures during which they traveled into “spiritual words” and gained “divine knowledge”. Even more, many religious cults consider that epileptic seizures are the proof of divinity, below are some examples.

Ecstatic love for Krishna” is the highest spiritual state in International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON).
The founder of International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda listed eight symptoms of “ecstatic love for Krishna”:

http://vedabase.com/en/nod/28
http://vedabase.net/nod/28/en
There are eight symptoms of existential ecstatic love: becoming stunned, perspiring, standing of the hairs on the body, faltering of the voice, trembling of the body, changing of bodily colors, shedding of tears and devastation.
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. The Nectar of Devotion. Chapter 28: Existential Ecstatic Love
 
http://vedabase.com/en/nod/27
http://vedabase.net/nod/27/en
The bodily symptoms manifested by a devotee in expressing ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa are called anubhāva. Practical examples of anubhāva are as follows: dancing, rolling on the ground, singing very loudly, stretching the body, crying loudly, yawning, breathing very heavily, neglecting the presence of others, drooling, laughing like a madman, wheeling the head and belching. When there is an extraordinary excess of ecstatic love, with all of these bodily symptoms manifested, one feels relieved transcendentally.
These symptoms are divided into two parts: one is called śīta, and the other is called kṣepaṇa. When there is yawning, the symptoms are called śīta, and when there is dancing they are called kṣepaṇa.
Dancing <...>,
Rolling on the Ground <...>,
Singing Loudly <...>,
Crying Loudly <...>,
Yawning <...>,
Breathing Heavily <...>,
Neglecting the Presence of Others <...>,
Drooling <...>,
Belching <...>.
Sometimes trembling of the whole body and hemorrhaging from some part of the body are also manifested in response to ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa, but such symptoms are very rare, and therefore Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī does not discuss any further on this point.
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. The Nectar of Devotion. Chapter 27: Symptoms of Ecstatic Love

ISKCON holy scripture “Caitanya Caritāmṛta” claims that (the founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism) Caitanya Mahāprabhu was experiencing all symptoms of ecstatic love for Krishna in his visions in which he saw Krishna.

http://vedabase.com/en/cc/antya/14
http://vedabase.net/cc/antya/14/en
CC Antya 14.68: They almost died when they saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu with His mouth full of saliva and foam and His eyes turned upward.
<...>
CC Antya 14.98: When Svarūpa Dāmodara and the other devotees reached the spot and saw the condition of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they began to cry.
CC Antya 14.99: All eight kinds of transcendental transformations were visible in the Lord's body. All the devotees were struck with wonder to see such a sight. 
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta. Chapter 14: Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's Feelings of Separation from Kṛṣṇa

http://vedabase.com/en/cc/madhya/18
http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/18/en
CC Madhya 18.159: While walking, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, understanding that the others were fatigued, took them all beneath a tree and sat down.
CC Madhya 18.160: There were many cows grazing near that tree, and the Lord was very pleased to see them.
CC Madhya 18.161: Suddenly a cowherd boy blew on his flute, and immediately the Lord was struck with ecstatic love.
CC Madhya 18.162: Filled with ecstatic love, the Lord fell to the ground unconscious. He foamed about the mouth, and His breathing stopped.
CC Madhya 18.163 While the Lord was unconscious, ten cavalry soldiers belonging to the Muslim Pāṭhāna military order rode up and dismounted.
CC Madhya 18.164 Seeing the Lord unconscious, the soldiers thought, “This sannyāsī must have possessed a large quantity of gold.
<...>
CC Madhya 18.168 The brāhmaṇa said, “You Pāṭhāna soldiers are all under the protection of your king. Let us go to your commander and get his decision.
CC Madhya 18.169 “This sannyāsī is my spiritual master, and I am from Mathurā. I am a brāhmaṇa, and I know many people who are in the service of the Muslim king.
CC Madhya 18.170 “This sannyāsī sometimes falls unconscious due to the influence of a disease. Please sit down here, and you will see that He will very soon regain consciousness and His normal condition.
<...>
CC Madhya 18.183: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “These are not rogues. They are My associates. Being a sannyāsī beggar, I do not possess anything.
CC Madhya 18.184: “Due to epilepsy, I sometimes fall unconscious. Out of their mercy, these four men maintain Me.”
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta. Chapter 18: Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's Visit to Sri Vrindavana

From neuroscience point of view symptoms of ecstatic love for Krishna of Caitanya Mahāprabhu described in “Caitanya Caritāmṛta” perfectly match musicogenic epilepsy (a.k.a. audiogenic epilepsy) criteria.

http://voices.yahoo.com/musicogenic-epilepsy-other-seizure-triggers-837061.html
Reflexive epilepsy is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by environmental stimuli. Musicogenic epilepsy, according to Dr. Acerkman if Temken Mercy Medical Center and Doctor Martha E. Banks, is just one of many forms of reflexive epilepsy in which a seizure is triggered by music or specific frequencies.
Sensitivity to music varies from patient to patient. Some are sensitive to a particular tone from a voice or instrument. Others are sensitive to a particular musical style or rhythm. Still others are sensitive to a range of noises such as a blowtorch or revving engine.
Musicogenic Epilepsy is relatively rare. Brain surgery last week at Long Island Jewish Medical Center to cure a woman with musicogenic epilepsy has raised awareness of the neurological condition. According to the Associated Press, 25 year-old Stacey Gayle's seizures were triggered by reggae and hip-hop artist Sean Paul's music. Following brain surgery, Gayle hasn't experienced another seizure, to date.
Reflexive seizures are difficult to identify, because often the stimuli is unknown. Although musicogenic epilepsy is not common, according to Doctor's Daly and Barry, Jr., the first case was reported in 1884. Dr. Acerkman and Banks study verified Daly and Berry's conclusion that both psychoacoustic and psychological factors play a role in inducing reflexive seizures. This means that in part musicogenic seizures are caused by certain noises and in part they are caused by negative associations with certain noises or music.
Additional indications which have been observed in patients with reflexive epilepsy include: déjà vu, hearing loss, twitching, loss of consciousness, head tilts, increased blood pressure, respiration changes, elevated temperature, incoherence, trembling of limbs, feeling of a need to grasp a thought that has just escaped their mind, and perspiration.
Reflexive epilepsy can be triggered by a number of things. In addition to musicogenic epilepsy, researchers have found reflexive epilepsy to be triggered by a tap on the shoulder, flashes of light, alcohol, temperature changes, exercise exhaustion, stress, and menstrual cycle or other hormonal changes. Insomnia, video games, insomnia and fatigue, and specific visual pattern have also been known to trigger epileptic seizures. Rarely, seizures may be triggered by thinking, eating, or soaking in water. <...>
Wendy Dawn, Yahoo Contributor Network. Jan 23, 2008
Musicogenic Epilepsy and Other Seizure Triggers.

See below the documentary movie which shows how the reception of the Holy Spirit looks in Christianity. Exactly in the same identical way Jesus was giving the Holy Spirit to his adepts.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PU7ZWHfNWT8#t=1m38s

(In Russian) Беснования харизматов (starting from 1 minute 38 seconds).
Length: 2 minutes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=srPtMNmbnBY

Benny Hinn – Power of God Falling In Philadelphia
Length: 8 minutes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdUIqKJyD0Q

Benny Hinn – Raw Anointing of the Spirit (1)
Length: 10 minutes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LPpjURtM5OI

Benny Hinn – Incredible Demonstrations of God's Power.
Length: 6 minutes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ee8H7KbN41k

Benny Hinn – Holy Spirit Flow Through Me
Length: 10 minutes

When a man receives Holy Spirit then following scenarios are possible:
1) if the amount of Holy Spirit is small then a man simply faints and unconsciously slumps on the floor;
2) if the amount of Holy Spirit is big then in man’s brain the epileptic neuron impulse firings are initiated which fire into the pleasure center of the brain and this process is accompanied by epileptic convulsions of the man’s body. These epileptic neuron impulse firings into pleasure center of the brain evoke euphoric state for a man who has received the Holy Spirit. The effect of these epileptic neuron impulse firings into pleasure center of the brain is much more dizzying than that of alcohol or narcotics and for that reason if the man has received such Holy Spirit several times then such man becomes addicted to Holy Spirit and man is unable to live without Holy Spirit exactly in the same way as drug addict is dependable on narcotics.

In all religions, no matter what is the name of that religion, the highest spiritual state is exactly identical by its underlying physiological mechanism and its physiological manifestation.
“The highest spiritual state” is usually accompanied by epileptic seizures. Epilepsy is a phenomenon when a small number of neurons in the brain excite themselves via positive feedback neural circuits which leads to the excitation of nearby neurons and this excessive hypersynchronous neuronal activity spreads through large areas of the brain. When epileptic neuron impulse firings hit the motor cortex in the brain then man’s body goes into convulsions.
In all religions in the highest spiritual state adepts exactly identically shake in epileptic convulsions and evoke epileptic neuron impulse firings into pleasure center of the brain.
The effect of these epileptic neuron impulse firings into pleasure center of the brain is much more dizzying than that of alcohol or narcotics and for that reason the adept becomes addicted to them and adept is unable to live without them exactly in the same way as drug addict is dependable on narcotics.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleasure_center
Pleasure center is the general term used for the brain regions involved in pleasure. Discoveries made in the 1950s initially suggested that rodents could not stop electrically stimulating parts of their brain, mainly the nucleus accumbens, which was theorized to produce great pleasure. Further investigations revealed that the septum pellucidium and the hypothalamus can also be targets for self-stimulation. More recent research has shown that the so-called pleasure electrodes lead only a form of wanting or motivation to obtain the stimulation, rather than pleasure. The weight of evidence suggests that human pleasure reactions occur across a distributed system of brain regions, of which important nodes include subcortical regions (such as the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum) and cortical regions (orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex).

Rodent experiments
The pleasure center was discovered in the 1950s by two brain researchers named James Olds and Peter Milner who were investigating whether rats might be made uncomfortable by electrical stimulation of certain areas of their brain, particularly the limbic system. In the experiment, an electrical current was given to rats if they entered a certain corner of a cage, with the hypothesis that they would stay away from that corner if the effect was uncomfortable. Instead, they came back quickly after the first stimulation and even more quickly after the second. In later experiments, they allowed the rats to press the stimulation lever themselves, to the effect that they would press it as much as seven-hundred times per hour. This region soon came to be known as the "pleasure center".
Rats in Skinner boxes with metal electrodes implanted into their nucleus accumbens will repeatedly press a lever which activates this region, and will do so in preference over food and water, eventually dying from exhaustion. In rodent physiology, scientists reason that the medial forebrain bundle is the pleasure center of rats. If a rat is given the choice between stimulating the forebrain or eating, it will choose stimulation to the point of exhaustion.

Human experiments
   ● Dr. José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado implanted electrodes in the brains of 25 people.
   ● 1963: "Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man." by Dr. Robert Heath.
   ● 1972: A 24-year-old man with temporal lobe epilepsy, identified as patient "B-19". "He was permitted to wear the device for 3 hours at a time: on one occasion he stimulated his septal region 1,200 times, on another occasion 1,500 times, and on a third occasion 900 times. He protested each time the unit was taken from him, pleading to self-stimulate just a few more times... "
   ● 1986: A 48-year-old woman with chronic pain. "the patient self-stimulated throughout the day, neglecting personal hygiene and family commitments."
Wikipedia

If epileptic neuron impulse firings do not hit the pleasure center in the brain then religious adepts consider this phenomenon as “demonic possession”.
For some movies about “demonic possession” please click here.

To read about the detailed analysis and underlying mechanisms of the Holy Spirit please click here.

In yoga the highest spiritual state is called “Awakening of the Serpent Power” (a.k.a. “Kundalini awakening”, some academics use the term “Kundalini syndrome” or “Physio-Kundalini syndrome”).
The highest spiritual state in yoga (“Awakening the Serpent Power”) is fully identical by all parameters to Christian “receiving of the Holy Spirit” – yogis shake in epileptic convulsions and evoke epileptic neuron impulse firings into pleasure center of the brain exactly in the same way as Christians are “receiving the Holy Spirit”.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kundalini_syndrome
Table 1: The Kundalini Scale
Symptoms
1. Feelings of energy in the hands.
2. Feeling deep ecstatic sensations.
3. Experiencing severe, or migraine type, headaches.
4. Awareness of energy discharges, or currents, flowing through the body.
5. Sensations of tickling, itching or tingling on, or underneath, the skin.
6. Awareness of internal lights or colors.
7. Hands feeling hot.
8. Sensations of extreme heat or cold moving through the body.
9. The body shakes, vibrates or trembles.

<...>
Table 2: The Physio-Kundalini Syndrome Index

Motor symptoms
1. Body assuming and maintaining strange positions for no apparent reason.
2. Body becoming frozen or locked into strange positions and immovable.
3. Breathing spontaneously stopping or becoming rapid, shallow, or deep for no apparent reason.
4. Spontaneous involuntary bodily movements.

Somatosensory Symptoms
5. Spontaneous deep ecstatic tickle or orgasmic feeling.
6. Physical sensations starting in the feet, legs or pelvis, and moving up the back and neck to the top of the head, down the forehead, over the face, then to the throat, and ending in the abdomen.
7. Extreme sensations of heat or cold moving through the body.
8. Moving pockets of bodily heat or cold being extreme enough to burn or otherwise affect someone else or an inanimate object.
9. Pains in specific parts of the body that begin and end abruptly.
10. Tingling, vibration, itching or tickling on the skin or inside the body.

Audiovisual symptoms
11. Internal noises, such as whistling, hissing, chirping, roaring or flutelike sounds.
12. Internal voices.
13. Internal lights or colors illuminating parts of the body.
14. Internal lights bright enough to illuminate a dark room.

Mental symptoms
15. Observing oneself, including one's thoughts, as if one were a bystander.
16. Sudden, intense ecstacy, bliss, peace, love, devotion, joy, or cosmic unity.
17. Sudden intense fear, anxiety, depression, hatred or confusion.
18. Thoughts spontaneously speeding up, slowing down, or stopping altogether.
19. Experiencing oneself as physically larger than the body.
Wikipedia

It is important to note that all religious teachings claim that epilepsy is the proof of the divinity and also at the same time they claim that epilepsy is the proof of the demonic possession – these two statements contradict each other and that proves logical inconsistency of religious teachings.
Below is a classical example when epilepsy is confused with the demonic possession – Jesus claims to have cast out the demon from the boy. Actually, the description of boy’s condition in the Bible clearly shows that the boy is having chronic epileptic seizures. Jesus simply stands nearby the boy until the epileptic seizure had ended and then Jesus declares that the boy was healed from demonic spirit – actually standing nearby and waiting until the epileptic seizure had ended has nothing to do with the healing – all epileptic seizures end up themselves sooner or later, thus this episode in the Bible clearly reveals the charlatanic nature of “miracle healings” of Jesus.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+9&version=ESV
Jesus Heals a Boy with an Unclean Spirit
14 And when they came to the disciples, they saw a great crowd around them, and scribes arguing with them.
15 And immediately all the crowd, when they saw him, were greatly amazed and ran up to him and greeted him.
16 And he asked them, “What are you arguing about with them?”
17 And someone from the crowd answered him, “Teacher, I brought my son to you, for he has a spirit that makes him mute.
18 And whenever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams and grinds his teeth and becomes rigid. So I asked your disciples to cast it out, and they were not able.”
19 And he answered them, “O faithless generation, how long am I to be with you? How long am I to bear with you? Bring him to me.”
20 And they brought the boy to him. And when the spirit saw him, immediately it convulsed the boy, and he fell on the ground and rolled about, foaming at the mouth.
21 And Jesus asked his father, “How long has this been happening to him?” And he said, “From childhood.
22 And it has often cast him into fire and into water, to destroy him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us and help us.”
23 And Jesus said to him, “‘If you can’! All things are possible for one who believes.”
24 Immediately the father of the child cried out and said, “I believe; help my unbelief!”
25 And when Jesus saw that a crowd came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to it, “You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him and never enter him again.”
26 And after crying out and convulsing him terribly, it came out, and the boy was like a corpse, so that most of them said, “He is dead.”
27 But Jesus took him by the hand and lifted him up, and he arose.
28 And when he had entered the house, his disciples asked him privately, “Why could we not cast it out?”
29 And he said to them, “This kind cannot be driven out by anything but prayer.
Bible. Mark 9:14-29

Catholics claim that exorcism can be performed only by an ordained priest (or higher prelate) with the express permission of the local bishop.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exorcism_in_the_Catholic_Church
Solemn exorcisms, according to the Canon law of the Church, can be exercised only by an ordained priest (or higher prelate), with the express permission of the local bishop, and only after a careful medical examination to exclude the possibility of mental illness.
Wikipedia

However this claim is false because exorcism procedures are accomplished no less successfully in other religions as well – in Islam, in Hinduism, in shamanistic cults, even in Voodoo cult, etc.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exorcism
Exorcism (from Greek ἐξορκισμός, exorkismos – binding by oath) is the practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person or an area they are believed to have possessed. Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the exorcist, this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate ritual, or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power. The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions.
Wikipedia

Exorcisms performed by Christian Church are very rarely successful and usually improve the condition of the man only for very short period of time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exorcism
According to Catholic understanding, several weekly exorcisms over many years are sometimes required to expel a deeply entrenched demon.
Wikipedia

The high failure rate of Christian Church’s exorcism was explained in Bible by Jesus himself – Jesus himself said very clearly that Jesus is unable to cast out demons forever and all demons return back to a man sooner or later. Below are the words of Jesus himself where Jesus clearly states that after the demons had been cast out they return back and “and the last state of that person is worse than the first”. Which means that in the Bible episode above the boy’s condition later became even worse than it was before – this is the classical example showing that “miracle healings” work only for very short period of time and later the patient’s condition becomes even worse than it was before.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+12&version=ESV
Return of an Unclean Spirit
43 “When the unclean spirit has gone out of a person, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, but finds none.
44 Then it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came.’ And when it comes, it finds the house empty, swept, and put in order.
45 Then it goes and brings with it seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they enter and dwell there, and the last state of that person is worse than the first. So also will it be with this evil generation.”
Bible. Matthew 12:43-45

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+11&version=ESV
Return of an Unclean Spirit
24 “When the unclean spirit has gone out of a person, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, and finding none it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came.
25 And when it comes, it finds the house swept and put in order.
26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they enter and dwell there. And the last state of that person is worse than the first.”
Bible. Luke 11:24-26

As for example, Jesus had repeated the exorcism procedure for Mary Magdalene seven times. The reason why seven times were needed was explained by Jesus himself – demons do return back after cast out and demons return back even stronger than they were before.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+16&version=ESV
9 Now when he rose early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons.
Bible. Mark 16:9

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+8&version=ESV
1 Soon afterward he went on through cities and villages, proclaiming and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. And the twelve were with him,
2 and also some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out,
3 and Joanna, the wife of Chuza, Herod's household manager, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their means.
Bible. Luke 8:1-3

Let’s raise a simple question: do you need to cast out demons from mentally healthy person? The answer is obvious – mentally healthy person does not need any casting out of demons. Only mentally ill person needs casting out of demons. The conclusion is very simple – Mary Magdalene was mentally ill person who needed repetitious exorcism procedures. Mary Magdalene was the most loyal disciple of Jesus. Mary Magdalene stayed with Jesus at the cross after the other disciples (except John the Beloved) had fled. Based on Bible episode John 8:1-11Western Catholic Church claims (and Eastern Orthodox disagrees) that Mary Magdalene was a prostitute which was saved by Jesus from being stoned to death. Let’s raise a simple question: how reliable are stories which are told by mentally ill prostitute? The answer is obvious. Nonetheless Christians consider Mary Magdalene as extremely reliable source of information.

Because the failure rate of Christian Church’s exorcism is very high, in the Middle Ages the Christian Church had been solving this technical problem in a very simple way – simply by killing all “demonically possessed” people for whom exorcism procedures had failed – usually such people were burned alive in flames – and the problem is solved.
In current times the Christian Church has no longer the ability to kill “demonically possessed” people for whom exorcism procedures had failed, so in current times Christian Church disposes by “demonically possessed” people in other modern way – simply by forwarding such people to psychiatrists, claiming that this man is “mentally ill” and not “demonically possessed” and claiming Christian Church has nothing to do with such cases. This strategy is the perfect tool to improve success rate of exorcism procedures – if exorcism procedure has barely succeeded then such man is declared as “demonically possessed”, however if exorcism procedure has failed then such man is declared as “mentally ill” who needs treatment in lunatic asylum and Christian Church has nothing to do with him.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exorcism_in_the_Catholic_Church
According to the Vatican guidelines issued in 1999, “the person who claims to be possessed must be evaluated by doctors to rule out a mental or physical illness.” Most reported cases do not require an exorcism because twentieth-century Catholic officials regard genuine demonic possession as an extremely rare phenomenon that is easily confounded with natural mental disturbances. <...>
Not all exorcisms are successful the first time; it could take days, weeks, or months of constant prayer and exorcisms.
Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anneliese_Michel
Anneliese Michel [ˈanəˌliːzə ˈmɪçl̩] (21 September 1952 – 1 July 1976) was a German woman who underwent Catholic exorcism rites in 1975 and died the next year, in 1976. Later investigation determined that she was malnourished and dehydrated; her parents and the priests responsible were charged with negligent homicide. The case attracted media and public attention because of the Catholic Church's unusual decision to employ the 400-year-old ritual of exorcism, something that had been rarely seen since the 18th Century.
<...>
The priest Ernst Alt, whom they met, on seeing her declared that "she didn't look like an epileptic" and that he did not see her having seizures. Alt believed she was suffering from demonic possession and urged the local bishop to allow an exorcism. In a letter to him in 1975, Michel wrote, "I am nothing, everything about me is vanity, what should I do, I have to improve, you pray for me" and also once told him, "I want to suffer for other people...but this is so cruel". In September of the same year, Bishop Josef Stangl granted the priest Arnold Renz permission to exorcise according to the Rituale Romanum of 1614, but ordered total secrecy. Renz performed the first session on 24 September. Her parents stopped seeking medical treatment and relied solely on the exorcism rites. 67 exorcism sessions, one or two each week, lasting up to four hours, were performed over about ten months in 1975–1976. Michel began talking increasingly about "dying to atone for the wayward youth of the day and the apostate priests of the modern church", and she refused to eat towards the end.
On 1 July 1976, Michel died in her home. The autopsy report stated the cause was malnutrition and dehydration because of being in a semi-starvation state for almost a year while the rites of exorcism were performed. She weighed 30 kilograms (68 pounds), suffering broken knees due to continuous genuflections. She was unable to move without assistance, and was reported to have contracted pneumonia.
<...>
In 1984, the bishops made a petition to the Vatican regarding the exorcism rite and a commission passed on the decision that she was mentally ill, not possessed. Her grave still became a pilgrimage center for fringe believers.
Wikipedia

Majority of doctors who treat the “demonic possession” incorrectly assume that “demonic possession” is exactly the same phenomenon as epilepsy – this confusion is due to the lack of knowledge about the existence of autonomic egregoric neuroclusters.
It is important to note that “demonic possession” and “epilepsy” are actually two different distinct phenomena. In “demonic possession” phenomenon the autonomic egregoric neurocluster takes over the control of patient’s physical body. Autonomic egregoric neurocluster can cause epileptic seizures, however epileptic seizure is the by-product of defective egregoric neurocluster’s activity, non-defective egregoric neurocluster does not cause epileptic seizures.
In classical medical cases the epileptic seizure arise without the involvement of egregoric neuroclusters, epileptic seizure arise when a small number of neurons in the brain excite themselves via positive feedback neural circuits which leads to the excitation of nearby neurons and this excessive hypersynchronous neuronal activity spreads through large areas of the brain. There are many ways to treat epilepsy however all these treatments share the same common working principle – in order to eliminate the epileptic seizures you need to suppress the excitement of neurons and you need to suppress the spread of the neural excitement through the large areas of the brain. Drugs which are used to treat epilepsy block the activity of the brain neurons thus rendering the patient into vegetable-like state to more or less degree. When a patient takes such drugs the frequency of epileptic seizures drops down or seizures disappear completely.
In psychiatry the same strategy is applied to “demonic possession” cases as well – the patient is drugged with medications which render the patient into vegetable-like state to more or less degree.
At current moment the psychiatry does not have any other tools to deal with “demonic possession” patients – the only treatment of such patient is to drug him into vegetable-like state.
However Neurocluster Brain Model gives an answer how to deal with “demonic possession” – all you need to do is (surgically or by other means) fix the brain locally in the places where egregoric neurocluster is located and thus the patient will be free from that “demon” forever.

For some movies about psychiatry please click here.

In Middle Ages Christian Inquisition has killed millions of people who were accused as being possessed by demons. Christians are unable to answer the simple question: why Inquisition has killed so many people? The answer is very simple – all societies in all times had some percentage of mentally ill men who were impossible to cure and who caused many troubles for surrounding people. Earlier societies did not possess enough resources and technologies to be able to support these mentally ill people – thus the easiest solution was chosen – simply to exterminate these mentally ill people by accusing them as being possessed by demons. Christian Church organized public executions of these mentally ill persons making such public executions as grand shows for religious adepts. The killing of mentally ill persons was totally controlled by the Church, which besides the killings of mentally ill persons also killed mentally healthy persons who were simply opposing the Church dogmas and Church domination.
In current times the society is able to support and to keep alive mentally ill people who are kept in psychiatric hospitals (a.k.a. lunatic asylums) and this the reason why the Church stopped killing mentally ill people.
It is important to note that the Church killed only such mentally ill people whose hallucinatory visions did not match Christianity dogmas, however if mentally ill person declared that he had hallucinatory vision in which he saw Jesus, Saint Mary or some other Christian Saint, then the Church declared such mentally person as the Saint.


For some scientific articles about divine relationship with epilepsy please click here.



The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is a non-profit organization founded in 1996 by magician and skeptic James Randi. In 1964, Randi began offering a prize of $US1000 to anyone who could demonstrate a supernatural or paranormal ability under agreed-upon scientific testing criteria. This prize has since been increased to $US1 million in bonds and is now administered by the JREF as the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge. Since its inception, more than 1000 people have applied to be tested. To date no one has either been able to demonstrate their claimed abilities under the testing conditions or have not fulfilled the foundation conditions for taking the test; the prize money still remains to be claimed. The JREF also maintains a legal defense fund to assist persons who are attacked as a result of their investigations and criticism of people who make paranormal claims.
Randi Foundation has conducted tests of telepathy and made the conclusion that the telepathy does not exist. Yet there are millions of people who claim that telepathy is a real phenomenon. Millions of people who have personally experienced telepathic séances will never believe the claims of the skeptic scientists (like Randi Foundation) that the telepathy does not exist. Who is right and who is wrong? The answer is simple – both sides are wrong because both sides have no idea what is the underlying mechanism of the telepathy due to the ignorance of the brain physiology.
The underlying mechanism of the telepathy is the following. The behavior of any man is governed by a simple law – standard stimulus invokes standard reaction (for that particular man) and this reaction can be forecasted with high probability (for example with 90 % probability). As for example, if Mary will be asked to do the housecleaning there is 90 % probability that Mary will become hysterical and will not do the housecleaning, however if Peter will be asked to do the housecleaning there is 90 % probability that Peter will do the job without any salvos and put-offs, if Laura will be offered to eat a cake there is 90 % probability that Laura will happily eat all the cake, however if John will be offered to eat a cake there is 90 % probability that John will decline the offer, etc. Everybody has seen in their lives huge number of people whose reaction so some stimulus (phrase/action/etc) can be forecasted with almost 100 % probability – especially this is inherent to old age people who are very inclined to “replay the same tape” precisely word after word.
In the human brain for every real world object there is been created the model of that object and some neural cluster saves the data about that object and this neural cluster undertakes to do the modeling of that object. When a man gets acquainted with [Mary/Peter/Laura/John] then some neural cluster undertakes to do the modeling of [Mary/Peter/Laura/John]’s behavior. The more the man gets to know [Mary/Peter/Laura/John] the more exact and the more detailed becomes the model about [Mary/Peter/Laura/John] in the brain of the man. Usually the deepest relationships are between the family members (the mother and her child, brothers and sisters, etc) and for that reason the models of close family member are especially precise. As for example, the mother has helped her child to do the homework and then she goes to the shop for a food. The child, while waiting for the mother, suddenly starts wanting “mom, please buy the ice-cream”, and approximately at the same time, when the mother is still shopping, suddenly in mother’s brain the neurocluster which models her child tells the mother “please buy the ice-cream”, the mother hears that and buys the ice-cream. When the mother returns home with the ice-cream and when the mother discusses with her child the evens which had happened – they both will decide and will become strongly convinced that the thoughts were transmitted via distance (the telepathy event). However the reality is much simpler – the model of the child in the mother’s brain has pretty well forecasted and modeled the behavior of the child – both the real child and the model of the child – both simultaneously started wanting the ice-cream. I.e. the “telepathic connection” is the connection inside the brain of the same man – the neurocluster which models the behavior of person X sends the message to the main personality and main personality receives that message. The law which governs “telepathic connection” is very simple – “telepathic connection” can be successful only when very detailed model of another X person’s behavior is implanted in the man’s brain. And the “telepathic connection” will be complete failure if it will be used for transition of telepathic information between people who does not know each other. And for that reason all double-blind tests of telepathy which were done by skeptic scientists failed and skeptic scientists naively think that they have “proven that telepathy does not exists”, however millions of people use the “telepathy” successfully in their daily life and are strongly convinced in the existence of “telepathy”. The denial of the phenomenon is not the explanation of the existing phenomenon – and for that reason millions of people simply do not listen to the twaddle of skeptic scientists and these people keep studying occult books written by “spiritual gurus” and keep believing in mystical nature of the “telepathy”.
All “telepathic information transmission” cases are governed by the following law – the more the participants know each other – the stronger/better is the “telepathic connection” between them, i.e. the more detailed model about the telepathic séance partner is in the brain of the man – the more precise is the “telepathic connection”.
The same underlying mechanism is in the similar phenomenon when some people experience “telepathic séances” with various celebrities – usually with some TV star, movie star, singer, musician, etc. What is the underlying mechanism of such “telepathic séances”? It is very simple. Some teenage girl falls in love with some TV-star-musician which is broadcasted via TV almost every day and this girl begins collecting and reading various articles in magazines/newspapers/etc about her “lover-TV-star”, she begins collecting various fetishes (video and sound records, photo cards, etc) and she knows every single small detail of TV-star’s life even better than that TV-star knows about himself. As the result very detailed and precise model about TV-star is formed in the girl’s brain and the girl begins “telepathic communication séances” with that TV-star – séances usually happen in the nights during dreamtime, however séances may also happen during the full awareness state.

It is important to note that Neurocluster Brain Model does not deal with the question of the existence of the Creator of the Universe (a.k.a. God), Neurocluster Brain Model does not deny or prove the existence of the Creator, Neurocluster Brain Model does not answer the question if the Creator exists or not, the question of the existence of the Creator is out of scope in Neurocluster Brain Model.
What Neurocluster Brain Model does is that it proves that all known religious experiences are the result of the activity of autonomous neuroclusters inside the brain of the religious adept. Neurocluster Brain Model proves that the origin of “sacred knowledge” which is written in all known religious sacred scriptures (Bible, Quran, Vedas, etc) is nothing more than the creation of autonomous neuroclusters inside the brains of the founders of that religion. Neurocluster Brain Model proves that all known religious sacred scriptures have nothing to do with Creator of the Universe regardless of whether the Creator exists or not.
Creationism vs. evolutionism debate is a very popular topic in the United States, however it is important to note that creationism vs. evolutionism debate is flawed and erroneous in its foundations. The first logical error is that both arguing sides incorrectly assume that Bible equals creationism, which is not true because creationism can be based on other non-biblical religious texts (like Vedas, etc) and also creationism can be based on totally non-religious foundations. The second logical error is the both arguing sides incorrectly assume that from two choices (Bible or evolution) only one choice is correct and the other is wrong which leads to incorrect assumption that supposedly if you will prove that Bible is wrong then evolution automatically becomes true, or if you will prove that evolution is wrong then Bible automatically becomes true. Such reasoning is totally flawed. First of all, the correctness or falseness of the Bible has nothing to do with the existence of the Creator of the Universe. Bible might be wrong from the first letter to the last however the Creator might still exist. The text of the Bible and the existence of the Creator are two distinct completely unrelated things. Secondly, the correctness or falseness of the evolution has nothing to do with existence of the Creator of the Universe. The evolution hypothesis and the Creator hypothesis might be true or false both at the same time – they are not mutually exclusive.

A good example of the same logical error is the website “Truth about Hinduism” which was made by the Muslims. The authors of website “Truth about Hinduism” list a huge list of errors in theology of Hinduism and then authors incorrectly conclude that falseness of Vedas supposedly proves that Quran is true. However it is obvious, that correctness or falseness of the Vedas has nothing to do with correctness or falseness of the Quran. Vedas and Quran are two unrelated things which are not mutually exclusive. Exactly the same applies to evolution vs. Bible debate – Bible and evolution are not mutually exclusive.

http://truthabouthinduism.wordpress.com/list-of-all-articles/
Truth about Hinduism
Answering Hinduism

Evolutionists claim that evolution is not a hypothesis, evolutionists claim that evolution is a scientific fact, however this claim is not true. The truth is that if you will carefully examine the “proofs” of evolution then you will find that all these “proofs” do not meet the criteria of strict science – many of these “proofs” are simple fakes, while other “proofs” are based of circular logic and still others are based on the faith of evolutionists – none of these “proofs” match the criteria of strict science.
To read about some scientific errors of evolutionists’ claims please click here.
It is important to note that non-existence of “proofs” that match the criteria of strict science does not mean that evolution is incorrect, evolution might be still true. Evolution hypothesis is a very attractive hypothesis because it appears very realistically, the only small problem it has that currently it does not match the criteria of strict science and strictly speaking it is based on faith. However the evolution topic is completely irrelevant to Neurocluster Brain Model so we will not dwell on it. The correctness of falseness of Neurocluster Brain Model is completely unrelated to the correctness of falseness of evolution and/or Creator hypotheses.

Above there were described theoretical principles of the inner working mechanisms of the brain which reveal the underlying working principles of the communication with gods/angels/demons/aliens/etc.
Now let’s analyze the practical experimental side of the same topic – how it is possible to artificially invoke the religious/occult/mystical/etc experiences for a man.

We will shortly remind the techniques which were mentioned above – religious/occult/mystical/etc experiences can be invoked in the following ways:
1) Sensory deprivation. It can be achieved in different ways: by putting a man into „sensory deprivation tank“, by living a secluded life away from civilization, meditations, prayers, etc;
2) Disturbing the equilibrium of biochemical reactions inside the brain. It can be achieved in different ways: by long enough starvation, special diets, holotropic breathwork, yogic exercises, using psychotropic substances, etc.
3) Using artificial power of the will and special techniques. These were not described yet so they will be described below. Detailed instructions will be given about how to enter “spiritual worlds”, how to “meet spiritual teachers in spiritual worlds”, how to leave physical body, etc.

Despite the fact that the humankind had been researching this topic for thousands of years and there are myriads of tractates written on this topic, however from the scientific point of view all these works are at extremely low level, almost kindergarten. The real breakthrough and revolution was done only in year circa 2000 when Michael Raduga began conducting experiments almost at industrial scale using thousands of people as a research object. Below is the short biography of Michael Raduga.

Michael Raduga
Michael Raduga
http://obe4u.com/michael_raduga/

Michael Raduga (his true name is Butakov Michail Sergeevich (Бутаков Михаил Сергеевич)) was born on July 1, 1983 in Novosibirsk’s Akademgorodok (Siberian Scientific Centre). When Michael Raduga was 15 years of age he awoke in the middle of the night constrained in the paralysis and some invisible force was dragging Michael from the bed into the window outside. Because Michael did not know what was happening to him the only explanation which he could think of was that extraterrestrial aliens were kidnapping him. However the same event was repeated in another night, and then again repeated in another night and so on. At first Michael was strongly convinced that he is being kidnapped by the aliens. However after some time Michael began to understand that this phenomenon has nothing to do with the aliens. At 17 years of age Michael Raduga distantiated himself away from the society and fully devoted himself to the investigation of the “out of body experience” (OOBE) topic. Michael Raduga had read all available literature about OOBE and he realized that all these books are full of errors and that all these books can be thrown into the waste-basket because there are almost useless. So Michael Raduga continued the exploration of OOBE solely on his own and he has done hundreds of experiments collecting experimental data. When other people had found out that Michael Raduga can teach the techniques of “leaving the physical body” they began to flood to Michael wanting to learn how to leave the physical body and Michael Raduga began conducting lectures and began teaching people. At 20 years of age Michael Raduga understood that Novosibirsk is too small town for his activity so Michael took with himself his first written book and moved to Moscow in year 2003. In year 2007 in Moscow Michael Raduga had started the “School of Out-of-Body Travel” in which he taught thousands of people how to “leave the physical body”, he conducted thousands of experiments and he wrote 10 books on this topic. In year 2010 Michael Raduga moved to California, USA, which is “the Babylon” of the current civilization. Currently Michael Raduga continues his activity in California, translates his books into other languages, distributes his books for free, etc.
Michael Raduga had tried to study law and management in MESI (Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics), however he had dropped the studies and fully devoted himself to the research of OOBE topic. Michael Raduga did not graduate university and has no university diploma, however his experimental research in OOBE is revolutionary. However the lack of academic training manifests itself in the vocabulary used by Michael Raduga.
As for example the main term/concept which was made-up and is very intensively used by Michael Raduga is “the phase”. Michael Raduga uses the word “the phase” to describe the intermediate stage between awareness and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep stages.

Michael Raduga's definition of “the phase”
Michael Raduga's – The Phase
Michael Raduga. The Phase – A Practical Guidebook. Page 6.

However the technical problem is that the word “phase” has already reserved meaning a long time ago, which means “period, stage, the degree of the development in some process, etc”.
As for example there are:
1) lunar phases: new moon, waxing (young)'crescent moon, first quarter 'moon', waxing 'gibbous moon', full moon, waning 'gibbous moon', last (third) quarter moon, waning (old) crescent moon;
2) wave phases;
3) oscillation phases;
4) sleep phases;
5) etc.

I.e. the word “phase” is the abstract term and for that reason the abstract word “phase” is absolutely unsuitable for naming the concrete/particular stage.
According to Michael Raduga there is “consciousness (awareness) phase”, there is “REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep stage”, and there is the intermediate phase, which should have some concrete naming “phase X” (where X is some name), however Michael Raduga has named it simply “the phase” which shows that Michael Raduga is unable to distinguish between abstract and concrete terms.
However despite these huge errors in Michael Raduga’s terminology, we can ignore these errors for a while because practical experimental results of Michael Raduga are the real breakthrough from the scientific point of view.

Michael Raduga has conducted repeatable experiments using groups of people and during these experiments people have experienced:
1) leaving the physical body;
2) clinical death experience;
3) meeting with the dead people;
4) meeting with the dead angels/demons/aliens/etc;
5) recreated biblical stories of “divine visions”;
6) etc.

For more details please read articles in mass media about Michael Raduga's experiments, please see the video lectures of Michael Raduga and please read his books.

Here you can read about the most prominent researchers of the OOBE field which were conducting their research before the arrival of Michael Raduga to the scene.
Here you can read the excerpt from Michael Raduga book “The Phase – A Practical Guidebook” about the machines which are supposed to help to reach OOBE state.


Question: why Neurocluster Brain Model encounters fierce resistance from religious adepts?
Explanation below.

Religious adepts have blind fanatic faith in the following two religious dogmas:
1) the man has “consciousness/soul/spirit/etc”;
2) “consciousness/soul/spirit/etc” is indivisible object, it can not be divided into the composing parts.

Both these dogmas have no scientific/experimental evidence whatsoever and both these dogmas do not meet the scientific criteria. According to the religious adepts, you simply must blindly believe in these two dogmas, and it does not matter that these dogmas are purely religious dogmas and have nothing to do with science. Religious adepts say: do you see that such and such authority believed in the existence of “consciousness” – and this means that you must believe that too.
More detailed description is in the article “Appeal to authority is a form of logical fallacy”.

Definition of “religious dogma”: a claim which does not meet the scientific criteria, a claim which has no experimental evidence.
Definition of “religious adept”: a man who believes in religious dogma.

Pseudoscientists have blind fanatic faith that they have consciousness. However, these pseudoscientists are unable to provide any evidence that they have consciousness.

The claim about the existence of “consciousness” is the religious dogma by definition.
A man who believes that he has “consciousness” is the religious adept by definition.

The article “What is science and what isn't science?” contains more detailed instructions about how to distinguish science from pseudoscience.

In science, the only way to confirm or to refute the theory/model, is to carry out the experiments and test whether the predictions of the model/theory are confirmed or not. There is no other way in science. In science the philosophical-theoretical blabber has no value whatsoever. The only judge in science is the experiment.

The difference between the scientist and the religious adept is the following:
1) The scientist does the experiment and checks out if the predictions of the model/theory are confirmed or not, and then based on the experimental results the scientist makes conclusions.
2) The religious adept says “I have not done the experiment, I will not do the experiment, I believe my religious dogma no matter what is the evidence, I will not look into the evidence, I am not interested in the evidence, I believe my religious dogma no matter what is the evidence”.

Neurocluster Brain Model is strictly scientific model, so if you want to check whether it is correct or not – all you need to do is to carry out the experiments which are described in Neurocluster Brain Model.
Neurocluster Brain Model was built based on the analysis and processing of experimental data of numerous experiments carried out on a statistically large sample of people.
If someone of you have any doubts about Neurocluster Brain Model and if you want to check whether it is correct or not – all you need to do is to carry out the experiments which are described in Neurocluster Brain Model.
If you have not carried out the needed experiments, if you do not have experimental results, then you are not qualified as scientist to make the judgment, your judgment is based purely on religious dogmas.

The experiments are very simple, and anyone can reproduce these experiments.

Experiment #1: interview with the dream character during the dreaming.

Next time when you go to sleep and when you have a dream and when you see some dream character-of-human-form (father/mother/brother/sister/friend/relative/etc) in your dream, go closer to that dream character and ask him a simple question: “do you have your own awareness/consciousness/soul/spirit/etc?” and then wait for the answer from that dream character.
In case if you have troubles to carry out this experiment during the dream (inability to control yourself during the dream) then this problem has easy technical solution – just use the techniques developed by Michael Raduga and you will be able to achieve lucid dream and/or OOBE state.

Let’s raise a simple question: who is the best expert to decide whether dream character has “awareness/consciousness” or not?
The answer is obvious: the best expert in this question is the dream character himself.
So your job is very simple – just ask the dream character himself whether he has “awareness/consciousness/soul/spirit/etc” or not.

Dream characters are autonomous personalities/entities who have their own opinion/knowledge beyond the control of the main personality. This can be easily proved with reproducible experiments, during which the dream characters provide information, which was previously unknown for the main personality (as for example, the dream character can tell you where you need to look for the lost keys, which you have lost a week ago and you were unable to find these keys despite you were desperately searching for them over the week, and after waking up you will find the keys in the specified location).

Experiment #2: interview with the “spirit” during the “spiritualistic séance”.

Another experimental proof of the autonomy of the dream characters is so-called “spiritualistic séance” during which the same dream characters (now having different name – so-called “spirits”, although the underlying mechanism of “spirits” and “dream characters” is exactly the same) in the awakening state can provide information, which the main personality had never known before (as for example, the “spirit” can tell you where you need to look for the lost keys, which you have lost a week ago and you were unable to find these keys despite you were desperately searching for them over the week, and after checking out you will find the keys in the specified location).

During the “spiritualistic séance”, after you will succeed in invoking the “spirit” simply ask him “do you have your own awareness/consciousness/soul/spirit/etc?” and then wait for the answer from that “spirit”.

Again, let’s raise a simple question: who is the best expert to decide whether the “spirit” has “awareness/consciousness” or not?
The answer is obvious: the best expert in this question is the “spirit” himself.
So your job is very simple – just ask the “spirit” himself whether he has “awareness/consciousness” or not.

The experimental setup is very simple and the cost of equipment is less than a dollar.
All you need are:
1) the needle;
2) the thread (length approximately 20-40 cm, 30 cm is the statistical average, the concrete comfortable length depends on the length of the hand of the "medium");
3) one standard A4-size sheet of paper, on this sheet of paper write down the alphabet letters in circle, which should look like the image below:

http://www.abaxion.com/kee110.htm
Buckland Spirit Board
Buckland Spirit Board

Place this sheet of paper on the table, take the thread with attached needle into the hand, and then position your hand over the sheet of paper in such a way that the needle is hanging above the center of the circle with alphabet letters, however the needle is not touching the sheet of paper, the needle is hanging above the sheet of paper at a distance of several centimeters from the paper.
Then concentrate and start the “invocation of the spirit”.
Choose freely the character whose “spirit” you want to “invoke”, as for example your dead grandfather, some historical person, some fictional character – it does not matter at all which character you will choose.
All that matters here is – whatever “spirit” will be able to respond and communicate meaningful messages via movements of the hanging needle, is good enough for the experiment.
As for example, you can try invoking Napoleon’s spirit – all you need to is – while keeping the thread with the needle above the center of the circle with alphabet letters, ask the question “Hello, Napoleon’s spirit, please come, I want to talk with you, are you here?”.
And watch carefully for the movements of the needle. If the needle starts moving forming meaningful words/sentences from the alphabet letters then the communication channel with the “spirit” is established.
If invoking of Napoleon’s spirit has failed (the needle does not move or moves randomly without forming meaningful words/sentences) then choose another character and repeat the same exact procedure anew, like for example “Hello, grandfather’s spirit, please come, I want to talk with you, are you here?”.
If invoking of spirit has failed again, then repeat the same exact procedure every time choosing another character.
It is important to note here, that during the first “séances” do not expect long fluent sentences from the “spirit”, if that “spirit” will be able to form one word from letters of alphabet then that is already the great achievement.
The intelligence level of majority of “spirits” is pretty low – getting one word as the answer to the asked question is a great achievement for that “spirit”.
When “séances” with the same “spirit” are repeated again and again then the fluency/speed of “spirit’s speech” increases with every new “séance”.
If you are lucky enough, then you can establish the communication channel with the “spirit” which will begin broadcast of the “spiritual knowledge about the structure of the universe, the moral lessons for the whole humanity across the globe, etc.” – such cases are quite rare, however you have small chance to succeed in that.
One such typical classic example of autonomic neurocluster is so called “archangel Gabriel” which dictated the text of Quran to Muhammad.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad
The Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe that it represents the words of God revealed to Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel.
Wikipedia

If you are failing to establish “communication channel” with the “spirit” then bellow are the techniques which might help:
1) If you are holding the thread with a needle in the right hand and “invoking of spirit” fails, then try holding the thread with a needle with another hand, try with the left hand, this might help. You need to find out which of your hands (right or left) is more successful in carrying out “séances”.
2) Experimental results have shown that coffee/alcohol/cigarettes/drugs/etc affects the “communication channel with the spirit” – the usage of even small doses of coffee/alcohol/cigarettes/drugs/etc either facilitates or hinders the “communication channel” – for different people the effect is different, however in your case the effect might be facilitation, so why not to try it, it might help. Of course, the preferred experimental setup is the complete soberness of the “medium”, however if “invocation of spirit” fails no matter how hard you try, then you have nothing to lose trying the same “invocation of spirit” procedure after the usage of small doses of coffee/alcohol/cigarettes/drugs/etc.

Experiment #3: induction of incidents of sleepwalking and/or MPD (multiple personality disorder).

Neurocluster Brain Model predicts that: after prolonged repeatable experimentation with “spiritualistic séances” you have high risk to induce sleepwalking/MPD incidents for the “medium”, during which the “medium” will be moving/breaking/etc various things in his own house, and when after awakening he finds things broken and scattered around his house, he becomes scared and strongly convinced that “evil spirits have possessed his house” – in more advanced cases this leads to the lunatic asylum.
Just go and carry out “spiritualistic séances” using “thread with the attached needle method” for prolonged periods of time as described in previous posts. Please note that it is important to use thread with the attached needle, do not use planchette/cup/glass/saucer (or some other heavy object) as shown in Hollywood movies. This setup (thread with the attached needle) will allow the manifestation of microscopic muscular contractions of the hand controlled by autonomous neurocluster inside the brain of the medium – with this experimental setup you can carry as many reproducible experiments as you wish. Using planchette/cup/glass/saucer will not work for average statistical man. Using planchette/cup/glass/saucer might work for people who are already in the lunatic asylum, but that’s another story. Average statistical man must use thread with the attached needle in order to succeed in “invoking spirit”.
Check out the results – check out if the “medium” has began having sleepwalking/MPD incidents which were not present before the experiment. The easiest and most reliable way to detect sleepwalking/MPD incidents is to use 24/7 video recording. If video recording is not available then sleepwalking/MPD incidents can be diagnosed using simple basic set of questions (however this method is less reliable than video recording).

http://neuroclusterbrain.com
Usually a man is completely unaware that he has multiple personality disorder, however it can be diagnosed with simple basic set of questions.
Diagnostic criteria for multiple personality disorder are the following:
1) Missing time and gaps in the memory.
Are there any episodes of “missing time” in your life? Are there any gaps in your memory? As for example, maybe you do not remember what you were doing yesterday from 3:00 PM till 8:00 PM, or maybe you do not remember what happened today from 8:00 AM till 12:00 PM, etc.
2) Strange things among your belongings.
Are there any episodes of you discovering the evidence of your actions and tasks that you do not recollect doing?
As for example, maybe you sometimes find new things among your belongings that you do not remember buying? As for example, maybe you have found an ashtray with smoked cigarettes in your home when you are completely sure that you are non-smoker, or maybe you have found leather clothes in your closet which perfectly fits your body however you are completely sure that you hate leather clothes, etc.
Are there any episodes of you finding (perplexing) writings, drawings, or notes among your belongings that you cannot remember doing?
Are there any episodes of you discovering injuries “coming to” in the midst of doing something?
3) “Teleportation”.
Are there any episodes of your “teleportation”? Are there any episodes when you have suddenly found yourself at work, in a nightclub, at the beach, or somewhere at home (e.g., in the closet, on a bed or sofa, in the corner) with no memory of how you came to be there?
4) Voices in the head.
Are there any episodes of you hearing voices inside your head that tell you to do things or comment on things that you are doing?
It is important to note that all these symptoms of multiple personality disorder are not attributable to psychotropic substances (alcohol, narcotics, etc) or another medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures). These signs and symptoms may be observed by others or reported by the individual.
Diagnostic criteria for MPD (multiple personality disorder). Official Neurocluster Brain Model site.
(a shortened paraphrase of Dissociative Identity Disorder Diagnostic Criteria 300.14 (F44.81) from “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th Edition - DSM-5”, published in 2013 by American Psychiatric Publishing)

Question for reader: have you carried out three experiments which were described above?
If you have not carried out the necessary experiments then you are not qualified as scientist to judge Neurocluster Brain Model, and your judgment is based purely on the religious dogmas.

The most popular religious dogma claims that man has “indivisible-single-consciousness”, the adepts of this religious dogma are scared to death by the idea that other agents/entities might be present in their own brain. That fierce fear of the possibility of other agents/entities being present in their own brain drives these people to fight until “the last drop of blood” defending the religious dogma of “indivisible-single-consciousness”.
From scientific point of view – it does not matter what do you think or what do you believe.
Science is what you can observe and on which you can carry out reproducible experiments – everything that meets these criteria is the science; and everything that does not meet these criteria – is not the science.

Let’s raise a simple question: is “consciousness” really indivisible object?
It is very easy to prove experimentally that dream characters do have their own “awareness/consciousness/soul/spirit/etc”. The experiment setup is very easy and was described above.
Make your conclusions ONLY after you have done the experiment on statistically large sample of people (acting as “mediums”). If you have not done the experiment then your philosophical-theoretical blabber has no value whatsoever.

Very often religious adepts oppose Neurocluster Brain Model with the following argument:
“there is no place in the brain where you could hide a second personality, much less 30 or 40 extra personalities”.

Below is the homework task for the development of logical thinking for religious adepts who have strong religious fanatic faith that “man has indivisible-single-consciousness”:
Are you completely sure that your brain is really able to contain one(1) personality? What about the scenario when one(1) personality is unable to fit in the brain, and only half(1/2) or a quarter(1/4) or a tenth(1/10) of personality is able to fit in the brain – how about that? Let’s suppose that we claim that your brain is too small to contain whole one(1) personality, one(1) personality is unable to fit into your brain/head, and we claim that your brain/head contains only tenth(1/10) of personality – flag into your hands, go ahead and try to disprove the claim that your brain contains only tenth(1/10) of personality. The reasoning behind that is very simple: if man’s brain is able to fit one(1) personality then such man is able to carry out scientific experiments to check whether experimental results confirm the predictions of model/theory or not, however if the man’s brain is too small to fit one(1) personality then such man says “I have not done the experiment, I will not do the experiment, I believe my religious dogma no matter what is the evidence, I will not look into the evidence, I am not interested in the evidence, I believe my religious dogma no matter what is the evidence”.

We will explain once again step by step.

Step #1: Scientific model/theory must be able to make predictions – do you agree with that or not?

Step #2: The predictions of the scientific model/theory must be testable by reproducible experiments – do you agree with that or not?

Step #3: Neurocluster Brain Model is able to make predictions which can be tested by reproducible experiments – so just go and do these experiments instead of your philosophical-theoretical blabber.
Make your conclusions ONLY after you have done the experiment on statistically large sample of people (acting as “mediums”). If you have not done the experiment then your philosophical-theoretical blabber has no value whatsoever.


Different people have different backgrounds and different qualifications and as the result they have different comprehension levels of the material.
When we write the description of “Neurocluster Brain Model” we try to present everything as simple as possible, however we do admit that we sometimes overestimate the capabilities/qualifications of some common casual readers.
A lot of material about “Neurocluster Brain Model” requires prerequisites in order to understand the material. If the reader does not meet the prerequisites then he will misunderstand some parts of the material or even the whole material.

http://registrar.utexas.edu/students/registration/before/prerequisites
A prerequisite is a course you must have completed before registering for another. Find out about prerequisites prior to registration using university catalogs, the course schedule, or our Prerequisite Check system.
The University of Texas at Austin

In order to fully 100% comprehend the material about “Neurocluster Brain Model” the prerequisites are: training/qualification in neuroscience, plus training/qualification in computer science, plus training/qualification in physics, plus training/qualification in electronics – and all of them simultaneously at the same time. And how many readers have training/qualification in all of these areas simultaneously at the same time? Not many, to say the least.
If the reader has training/qualification only in neuroscience then it is not enough. If the reader has training/qualification only in physics then it is not enough. If the reader has training/qualification only in computer science then it is not enough. If the reader has training/qualification only in electronics then it is not enough.
The purpose of this text is to test and to debug the description/presentation of “Neurocluster Brain Model” in order to find out which parts of the material are comprehensive for the average reader and which parts of the material are totally misunderstood. Then, according to the feedback, remake/redesign the description/presentation of “Neurocluster Brain Model” in order to increase its comprehensibility for the average reader. Very often the sacrifice of accuracy is needed in order to increase the comprehensibility of the material. Sometimes a little inaccuracy saves a ton of explanation.


… to be continued … the text being prepared....




Conclusions

1. The new scientific model of the brain called Neurocluster Brain Model has been proposed which is able to explain all religious and occult phenomena.

2. Neurocluster Brain Model defines “I” (a.k.a. “spirit”, “soul”, “consciousness”, etc) as the software which runs on neural-network-hardware (i.e. on neurons of the brain).

3. Neurocluster Brain Model claims that the model of the object is stored inside the “piece of the brain” (cluster of neurons) and this neurocluster acts not only as passive “data file” but also under special conditions this neurocluster can act as “executable file” which can simulate the behavior of stored object for the main personality – this is the underlying mechanism of how religious adepts communicate with spirits/angels/Gods/etc and also the underlying mechanism of other religious and occult phenomena.

4. Neurocluster Brain Model claims that human brain contains many autonomous neuroclusters, however under normal usual conditions all these neuroclusters are in the dormant (latent) state and do not manifest themselves into outer world thus mankind has made wrong conclusion that one human body contains only one(1) personality (a.k.a. consciousness, soul, spirit). Under special (natural or artificial) conditions it is possible to invoke the manifestation of these autonomous neuroclusters into the outer world which result in manifestation of various so called “religious and occult phenomena”.

5. The validity of Neurocluster Brain Model can be proved experimentally in many ways, as for example one such proof is spiritualistic séances. Almost everybody can make the experiment of invoking of spirits in the spiritualistic séance using “needle with the thread” method and this experiment will prove that communication with “spirits” (i.e. autonomous neuroclusters) is a real tangible phenomenon and not a fantasy. Religious adepts claim that spirits are some kind of “cloudlets”, which can travel via air, which can fly from one geographical location into another, etc – in that case when spirit is invoked during spiritualistic séance then psychological portrait of that spirit must remain the same no matter which medium is holding the needle with the thread, however experiments show that psychological portrait of the invoked spirit changes when the needle with the thread is given to another medium sitting at the same table – this change of psychological portrait is easily explained by Neurocluster Brain Model – all “spirits” are actually autonomic neuroclusters inside of the brain of the medium and these neuroclusters act as separate personalities which are independent from the main personality of the medium, and brains of different mediums have slightly different models of the same “invoked spirit” which results in the change of psychological portrait of the spirit when needle with the thread is given to another medium.

6. The advantage of Neurocluster Brain Model is that it able to predict which conditions must be satisfied in order to invoke the manifestation of some particular religious/occult phenomenon, as for example Neurocluster Brain Model predicts which conditions must be satisfied in order to have successful “telepathic connection” and under what conditions “telepathic connection” will fail.

7. From a normal healthy man it is possible to artificially create MPD (multiple personality disorder), it is possible to artificially implant into human brain up to 20-40 independent personalities which can remain dormant (latent) for years until the demand of the creator who can provoke manifestation of these hidden independent personalities to accomplish the needed mission.

8. The advantage of Neurocluster Brain Model is that it provides the ability to distinguish which stories/claims of religious adepts are real/reliable and which stories/claims of religious adepts are fake/deceptive. As for example, if you will carefully investigate all cases of videos which show poltergeist throwing various material objects then you will always find out that all these videos are fake, however if you will personally yourself carry out spiritualistic séances then you will find out that communication with autonomic neuroclusters inside medium’s brain is a very real phenomenon and under special conditions you can have quite meaningful communication with these autonomous neuroclusters.





Additional reading

Discussion of “Neurocluster Brain Model” on external forums

Frequently asked questions (FAQ) about Neurocluster Brain Model

Neuron model RF-PSTH (which simulates Receptive Field (RF) structure and PSTH output signal of the neuron)

“Neuron model RF-PSTH” and “Neurocluster Brain Model” – are two different, unrelated models.
The correctness of falseness of “Neuron model RF-PSTH” is completely unrelated to the correctness of falseness of “Neurocluster Brain Model”.

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