|Colin Ross at Conspiracy Culture
(November 10th 2012)
Length: 2 hours 17 minutes
Published on Nov 19, 2012
10/11/12 TORONTO Conspiracy Culture presents The CIA & Military Mind Control a presentation by Dr. Colin Ross, introduced by Patrick and Bryan. Dr. Ross presenting a history of CIA Mind Control Experimentation by Psychiatrists, declassified programs, case studies, controversial theories, and more...
|CIA Mind Control Secrets:
Interrogation Techniques & Torture Weapons | Colin Ross
Length: 16 minutes
Published on Aug 30, 2012
CIA Mind Control Secrets: Interrogation Techniques & Torture Weapons | Psychiatrist Colin Ross Psychetruth
Psychetruth Correspondent Corrina Rachel interviews psychiatrist Dr. Colin Ross about Enhanced Interrogation Techniques, non-lethal weapons, CIA Mind Control, Brainwashing, Guantanamo Bay, Abu Ghraib, MK Ultra and more.
|Mind Control Facts: CIA
Experiments on Military & Civilians, Dr. Colin Ross | The Truth
Length: 23 minutes
Published on Apr 5, 2013
Mind Control Facts: CIA Experiments on Military & Civilians, Dr. Colin Ross | The Truth Talks
Psychetruth News Correspondent interviews psychiatrist Dr. Colin Ross about his personal research into the CIA Mind Control Experiments MK Ultra, Bluebird, Artichoke, MK Search, and more. How does a conspiracy theory become fact? Declassified CIA Secrets and Freedom of Information Act Requests.
It is likely that over 100,000 or perhaps several hundred thousand people were subjects of CIA Mind Control experiments—unknowing civilians, mental health patients and other hospitalized civilians, military personnel and more.
|CIA Mind Control Secrets MK
Ultra & Brainwashing Interview - Dr. Colin Ross & Corrina
Length: 14 minutes
Published on Jul 10, 2012
CIA Mind Control Secrets MK Ultra Brainwashing Interview - Dr. Colin Ross & Corrina Rachel
Psychetruth News Correspondent interviews psychiatrists Dr. Colin Ross about the CIA mind control experiments called MKUltra. These were a series of projects covertly used on the American public which included hypnosis, LSD & other drugs, brain implants, electric shock and other pieces of psychology and psychiatry in an attempt to control people and even make Manchurian Candidate style assassins.
|What is Brainwashing? Mind
Control by Force? Is Total Recall Real? MK Ultra, Colin Ross Interview
Length: 16 minutes
Published on Jul 20, 2012
What is Brainwashing? Mind Control by Force? Is Total Recall Real? MK Ultra, Colin Ross Interview
Psychetruth News Correspondent interviews psychiatrist Dr. Colin Ross about brainwashing and current examples of brainwashing techniques being used. He also discusses MKUltra, the CIA mind control experiments called. These were a series of projects covertly used on the American public which included hypnosis, LSD & other drugs, brain implants, electric shock and other pieces of psychology and psychiatry in an attempt to control people and even make Manchurian Candidate style assassins.
|Donald Ewen Cameron (24 December
1901 – 8 September 1967) was a Scottish-born psychiatrist. He is
largely known today for his central role in unethical medical
experiments, and development of psychological and medical torture
techniques for the CIA. He served as President of the American
Psychiatric Association (1952–1953), Canadian Psychiatric Association
(1958–1959), American Psychopathological Association (1963), Society of
Biological Psychiatry (1965) and the World Psychiatric Association
Cameron was involved in administering electroconvulsive therapy and experimental drugs, including poisons such as curare and hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide, to patients and prisoners without their knowledge or informed consent. Some of this work took place in the context of the Project MKUltra program for the developing of mind control and torture techniques, psychoactive poisons, and behavior modification systems. Decades after his own death, the psychic driving technique he developed continued to see extensive use in the torture of prisoners around the world.
In 1936, he moved to Massachusetts to become director of the research division at Worcester State Hospital only 1 year later. In 1936, he also published his first book, Objective and Experimental Psychiatry which introduced his belief that psychiatry should approach the study of human behavior in a rigorous, scientific fashion rooted in biology. His theories of behavior stressed the unity of the organism with the environment; the book also outlined experimental method and research design. Cameron believed firmly in clinical psychiatry and a strict scientific method.
MKULTRA Subproject 68
During the 1950s and 1960s, Cameron became involved in what has later become known as the MKUltra mind control program, which was covertly sponsored by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and which eventually led to the publication of the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation manual. Cameron's work was funded under MKUltra's subproject 68. He is unrelated to another CIA psychiatrist, Alan S. Cameron, who helped pioneer psychological profiling of world leaders during the 1970s and was not associated with the behavioral modification research program.
Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by "erasing" existing memories and "reprogramming" the psyche. He commuted from Lake Placid, New York to Montreal every week to work at McGill's Allan Memorial Institute and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 to carry out MKUltra experiments there, known as the Montreal experiments. In addition to LSD, he experimented with various paralytic drugs such as curare and electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power. His "psychic driving" experiments consisted of putting a subject into a drug-induced coma for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple statements. These experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the Institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postnatal depression; many were permanently debilitated after these treatments. Such consequences included incontinence, amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents. His work was inspired and paralleled by the psychiatrist William Sargant, who was also involved with the intelligence services and experimented extensively on his patients without their consent, causing similar long-term damage.
Sid Taylor stated that Cameron used curare to immobilise his patients during his research. After one test he noted: "Although the patient was prepared by both prolonged sensory isolation (35 days) and by repeated depatterning, and although she received 101 days of positive driving, no favourable results were obtained." Patients were tested in the Radio Telemetry Laboratory, which was built under Cameron's direction. Here, patients were exposed to a range of RF and electromagnetic signals and monitored for changes in behaviour. It was reported that none of the patients sent to the Radio Telemetry Lab showed any signs of improvement.
In 1980, the Canadian investigative news program The Fifth Estate interviewed two former patients of Cameron's who were among several of his ex patients who were at that time suing the CIA for the long term effects of Cameron's treatment. In her book, In the Sleep Room: The Story of the CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada, author Anne Collins explored the history of Cameron and Montreal's Allan Memorial Institute. This was made into a TV mini-series directed by Anne Wheeler in 1998, called The Sleep Room, which also dramatizes the lawsuit of Cameron's ex-patients against the CIA. The son of one of Cameron's patients noted in a memoir that other than Ed Broadbent and Svend Robinson, no Canadian MP brought up the issue in the House of Parliament.
Naomi Klein states in her book The Shock Doctrine that Cameron's research and his contribution to MKUltra were not about mind control and brainwashing, but "to design a scientifically based system for extracting information from 'resistant sources.' In other words, torture." She then cites Alfred W. McCoy: "Stripped of its bizarre excesses, Cameron's experiments, building upon Donald O. Hebb's earlier breakthrough, laid the scientific foundation for the CIA's two-stage psychological torture method."
Cameron is the subject of Stephen Bennett's film Eminent Monsters (2020), which was funded by BBC Scotland and Creative Scotland.
Whether or not Cameron was aware that funding for his experiments was coming from the CIA is unclear; it has been argued that he would have carried out the exact same experiments if funding had come from a source without ulterior motives.
Welsh Dulles (/ˈdʌləs/, /ˈdʌlɪs/; April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was
the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its
longest-serving director to date. As head of the Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA) during the early Cold War, he oversaw the 1953 Iranian
coup d'état, the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, the Lockheed U-2 aircraft
program, the Project MKUltra mind control program and the Bay of Pigs
Invasion. He was fired by John F. Kennedy over the latter fiasco.
Dulles was one of the members of the Warren Commission investigating the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Between his stints of government service, Dulles was a corporate lawyer and partner at Sullivan & Cromwell. His older brother, John Foster Dulles, was the Secretary of State during the Eisenhower Administration and is the namesake of Dulles International Airport.
|Frank Rudolph Emmanuel Olson
(July 17, 1910 – November 28, 1953) was an American bacteriologist,
biological warfare scientist, and an employee of the United States Army
Biological Warfare Laboratories (USBWL) who worked at Camp Detrick (now
Fort Detrick) in Maryland. At a meeting in rural Maryland, he was
covertly dosed with LSD by his colleague Sidney Gottlieb (head of the
CIA's MKUltra program) and, nine days later, plunged to his death from
the window of the Hotel Statler in New York. The U.S. government first
described his death as a suicide, and then as misadventure, while
others allege murder. The Rockefeller Commission report on the CIA in
1975 acknowledged their having conducted covert drug studies on fellow
agents. Olson's death is one of the most mysterious outcomes of the CIA
mind control project MKUltra.
|Project MKUltra (or MK-Ultra)[a]
was the code name of a quasi-legal human experimentation program
designed and undertaken by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The experiments were intended to develop procedures and identify drugs
such as LSD that could be used in interrogations to weaken individuals
and force confessions through brainwashing and psychological torture.
MKUltra used numerous methods to manipulate its subjects' mental states
and brain functions, such as the covert administration of high doses of
psychoactive drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, electroshocks,
hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, and verbal and sexual abuse,
in addition to other forms of torture.
MKUltra was preceded by two drug-related experiments, Project Bluebird and Project Artichoke. It began in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964 and 1967, and was halted in 1973. It was organized through the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence and coordinated with the United States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories. The program engaged in illegal activities, including the use of U.S. and Canadian citizens as unwitting test subjects.: 74 MKUltra's scope was broad, with activities carried out under the guise of research at more than 80 institutions, including colleges and universities, hospitals, prisons, and pharmaceutical companies. The CIA operated using front organizations, although some top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement.
MKUltra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the United States Congress and Gerald Ford's United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States (also known as the Rockefeller Commission). Investigative efforts were hampered by CIA Director Richard Helms's order that all MKUltra files be destroyed in 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the small number of documents that survived Helms's order. In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to MKUltra, which led to Senate hearings. Some surviving information about MKUltra was declassified in July 2001.
Origin of cryptonym
The project's CIA cryptonym is a combination of the digraph MK, indicating the sponsorship of the Technical Services Staff (TSS), and the word Ultra which formerly designated the most secret classification of World War II intelligence. Other related cryptonyms include Project MKNAOMI and Project MKDELTA. MKDELTA was established to oversee the use of MKUltra materials abroad. According to the Church Committee, "such materials were used on a number of occasions".
Origin of project
According to author Stephen Kinzer, the CIA project "was a continuation of the work begun in WWII-era Japanese facilities and Nazi concentration camps on subduing and controlling human minds". Kinzer wrote that MKUltra's use of mescaline on unwitting subjects was a practice that Nazi doctors had begun in the Dachau concentration camp. Kinzer proposes evidence of the continuation of a Nazi agenda, citing the CIA's secret recruitment of Nazi torturers and vivisectionists to continue the experimentation on thousands of subjects, and Nazis brought to Fort Detrick, Maryland, to instruct CIA officers on the lethal uses of sarin gas.
Aims and leadership
The project was headed by Sidney Gottlieb but began on the order of CIA director Allen Dulles on April 13, 1953. Its aim was to develop mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war during the Korean War. The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives, and was interested in manipulating foreign leaders with such techniques, devising several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. It often conducted experiments without the subjects' knowledge or consent. In some cases, academic researchers were funded through grants from CIA front organizations but were unaware that the CIA was using their work for these purposes.
The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and to explore other possibilities of mind control. Subproject 54 was the Navy's top-secret "Perfect Concussion" program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory; the program was never carried out.
Most MKUltra records were destroyed in 1973 by order of CIA director Richard Helms, so it has been difficult for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 funded research subprojects sponsored by MKUltra and related CIA programs.
The project began during a period of what English journalist Rupert Cornwell described as "paranoia" at the CIA, when the U.S. had lost its nuclear monopoly and fear of communism was at its height. CIA counter-intelligence chief James Jesus Angleton believed that a mole had penetrated the organization at the highest levels. The agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining ways to influence and control the mind and to enhance its ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation. Some historians assert that one goal of MKUltra and related CIA projects was to create a Manchurian Candidate-style subject. American historian Alfred W. McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs so that the public would not look at the research's primary goal, which was effective methods of interrogation.
Scale of project
One 1955 MKUltra document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort. It refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as follows:
1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.
2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.
3. Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so they may be used for malingering, etc.
6. Materials which will render the induction of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness.
6. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture, and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brain-washing".
7. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.
8. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.
9. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.
10. Substances which will produce "pure" euphoria with no subsequent let-down.
11. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.
12. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.
13. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
14. Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
15. A knockout pill which can be surreptitiously administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.
16. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a person to perform physical activity.
The 1976 Church Committee report found that, in the MKDELTA program, "Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKULTRA/MKDELTA materials were also used for harassment, discrediting or disabling purposes."
Other related projects
In 1964, MKSEARCH was the name given to the continuation of the MKULTRA program. The MKSEARCH program was divided into two projects dubbed MKOFTEN and MKCHICKWIT. Funding for MKSEARCH commenced in 1965, and ended in 1971. The project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Chemical Corps and the CIA's Office of Research and Development to find new offensive-use agents, with a focus on incapacitating agents. Its purpose was to develop, test, and evaluate capabilities in the covert use of biological, chemical, and radioactive material systems and techniques of producing predictable human behavioral and/or physiological changes in support of highly sensitive operational requirements.
By March 1971 over 26,000 potential agents had been acquired for future screening. The CIA was interested in bird migration patterns for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) research; subproject 139 designated "Bird Disease Studies" at Penn State.
MKOFTEN was to deal with testing and toxicological transmissivity and behavioral effects of drugs in animals and, ultimately, humans.
MKCHICKWIT was concerned with acquiring information on new drug developments in Europe and Asia, and with acquiring samples.
Montreal experiments were a series of experiments, initially aimed to
treat schizophrenia by changing memories and erasing the patients'
thoughts using Donald Ewen Cameron's method of “psychic driving”, as
well as drug-induced sleep, intensive electroconvulsive therapy,
sensory deprivation and Thorazine. The experiments were conducted at
the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University between 1957 and 1964
by the Scottish psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron and funded by the CIA
as part of Project MKUltra, which lasted until 1973 and was only
revealed to the public in 1975.
The patients of this experiment expected positive changes from Cameron's treatment. However, these patients suffered severely under conditions that were not in accordance with human rights. Not only the patients but also their families show long lasting effects on their mental health. Some of these symptoms include retrograde amnesia as well as impairments in every day life abilities such as self-care.
To this day, the topic of the experiments of Montreal has been kept in the dark by the CIA, who actively prevent information about these experiments from being leaked to the public, whether that be through destruction of files or signing non-disclosure agreements.
Whether or not Cameron was aware that funding for his experiments was coming from the CIA is unclear; it has been argued that he would have carried out the exact same experiments if funding had come from a source without ulterior motives.
Donald Ewen Cameron
Donald Ewen Cameron was the key figure in the Montreal experiments.
Cameron was born on December 24, 1901 in Scotland and graduated from the University of Glasgow in 1924. In 1929 he moved to Canada where he worked in the Brandon Mental Hospital in Manitoba as the physician in charge. In 1938 he received his diploma in psychiatry and became professor of neurology, psychiatry at University at Albany and began his research on sensory deprivation and memory.
In 1953 he developed his theory of “psychic driving” to cure schizophrenia which he later used on his patients under the Project MKUltra, with the codename “Subproject 68” for which he was recruited by the CIA in 1957. He was paid $69,000 through the front company “Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology” from 1957 to 1964 to carry out these experiments, as well as receiving "more than $500,000 between 1950 and 1965" from the federal government. He suddenly left the project four years before the end of his contract.
In 1961 he became president of the World Psychiatric Association after he had already been the president of both the American Psychiatric Association as well as the Canadian Psychiatric Association.
In 1967 he died of a heart attack.
With the goal of inducing lifelong changes in humans, Cameron used different methods of depatterning and repatterning the brain. The procedures included psychic driving, drug-induced sleep, intensive electroconvulsive therapy, sensory deprivation and the administration of neuroleptic Thorazine.
Cameron used doses of thorazine to put patients into an artificial coma.
The drug-induced sleep, which took place in the “sleep room”, usually lasted from a few days up to 86 days; longer than expected by the patients. Cameron often combined the sleep periods with injections of hallucinogenic drugs (e.g. LSD), as well as administration of electroshocks and the playing of pre-recorded messages into patients' ears.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Electroconvulsive therapy (also called electroshock therapy) is a procedure used to treat psychological disorders like treatment-resistant depression.
Another way of depatterning the brain was intensive electroconvulsive therapy (electroshock therapy). Usually, 2 to 3 daily sessions were ordered, consisting of six 150-Volt shocks that lasted one second. After 30-40 daily sessions, Cameron progressively reduced the sessions and finished the treatment after a two-year follow up program with one session per month.
Inspired by Donald Hebb's experiment on sensory deprivation and human cognition, Cameron included these techniques in his treatment program. Patients were deprived of their senses by covering ears, eyes and/or skin. Furthermore, patients were given little food, water and oxygen, and instead injected with drugs (LSD, curare) to keep them in a paralyzed state.
In order to repattern the brain, patients had to listen to specific recordings of Cameron repeatedly. This process took place for up to 16 hours a day, and over the whole period messages could be repeated up to half a million times altogether. For the first ten days, recordings contained personal, negative messages, which were followed by ten days of positive messages.
Anxiety that would emerge in patients was countered with heavy doses of sedating drugs such as Sodium Amytal and Largactil.
It is unknown how many people participated in the Montreal Experiments exactly, but over 300 people applied for compensation in 1992 with the Canadian Government. The participants of the experiment mainly had mental health issues like depression and schizophrenia, and were hoping to get treated for these illnesses by Donald Ewen Cameron. None of them had given informed consent to the procedures, or were aware of the experiments being conducted. This was a gross violation of the Nuremberg Code, a code of ethics set up after World War II. Children and adults from many social backgrounds were treated, most of them for up to three years.
Participants often suffered from retrograde amnesia for the rest of their lives and had to relearn most skills they had. Many were in a childlike state and even had to be potty-trained. Family described them as even more emotionally unstable as before and some of them were unable to live a normal life afterwards. One such patient was Jean Steel, whose daughter said that she never returned to be the same woman ever again. Jean would sit alone in the dark, write codes on the walls, and according to her daughter, "her emotions were stripped. It took away her soul."
Project MKUltra officially ended in 1973, around the time that the Watergate scandal broke.
It wasn't until 1975 that the general public were informed about the extent of CIA meddling, largely due to the involvement of the Church Committee, which was tasked with the investigation of “the extent, if any, to which illegal, improper, or unethical activities were engaged in by any agency of the Federal Government,"
During the 1977 Senate Hearing on MKUltra, Senator Edward “Ted” Kennedy called for the release of all documents pertaining to MKUltra, saying “the best way to put this period behind us, obviously, is to have the full information…” The Senate Hearing also allowed the CIA Director of the time, Stansfield Turner, to give his prepared statement and to elaborate on the discovery of seven boxes of information related to Project MKUltra, most of which turned out to consist of "approvals for advance of funds, vouchers, accountings, and the like - most of which are not very informative as to the nature of the activities that were undertaken." This made it very difficult to judge the extent of CIA involvement with the Montreal Experiments.
More information was revealed in the Canadian CBC documentary series “The Fifth Estate”. In 1980, they released a first episode about Project MKUltra, which not only held the testimony of two Canadian patients who'd undergone the treatment speaking out for the first time, but also the revelation that Ottawa had aided to suppress information that CIA officials had apologised to the Canadian government following the initial revelation of the experimentation. The second episode, released in 2017, focuses on the present-day struggle of the victims to receive compensation, the hindrances made to prevent them from speaking out about their experiences, and the efforts of the CIA and Canadian government to keep their involvement hidden. Mentioned in particular are a 1988 class action settlement made by the victims against world s most committed CIA, which they won, receiving 67,000 US dollars each, and a 1992 compensation from the Canadian government, in which 77 individuals received 100,000 US dollars each, but signed away their right to sue the government or the hospital. This compensation did not extend to 250 other victims, denied for not being "tortured enough, applied too late or because they couldn't produce medical records."
To this day, neither the Canadian government nor the CIA have issued formal apologies for their involvement and funding of Project MKUltra or the Montreal experiments. In 2017, the Canadian government reached an out-of-court settlement with the daughter of one of the patients, paying 100,000 US dollars in exchange for dropping the legal case, and signing a non-disclosure agreement which would prevent her from talking about the settlement.
There is no clear evidence of what really happened in the Montreal Experiments. None of Cameron's personal files concerning his experiments survived. Other documents which would verify the Montreal Experiments either no longer exist or are still classified. Most of the information on the experiments is rooted in reports of patients, especially their journals or court reports.
|Project ARTICHOKE (also referred
to as Operation ARTICHOKE) was a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
project that researched interrogation methods.
Preceded by Project BLUEBIRD, ARTICHOKE officially arose on August 20, 1951 and was operated by the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence. The primary goal of Project ARTICHOKE was to determine whether a person could be involuntarily made to perform an act of attempted assassination. The project also studied hypnosis, forced morphine addiction (and subsequent forced withdrawal) and the use of other chemicals including LSD, to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states in subjects.
Project ARTICHOKE led to Project MKUltra, which began in 1953.
ARTICHOKE was a mind control program that gathered information together with the intelligence divisions of the Army, Navy, Air Force and FBI. In addition, the scope of the project was outlined in a memo dated January 1952 that asked, "Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?"
Project ARTICHOKE was the Central Intelligence Agency's secret code name for carrying out in-house and overseas experiments using LSD, hypnosis and total isolation as forms of physiological harassment for special interrogations on human subjects. At first agents used cocaine, marijuana, heroin, peyote and mescaline, but they increasingly saw LSD as the most promising drug. The subjects who left this project were fogged with amnesia, resulting in faulty and vague memories of the experience. In 1952, LSD was increasingly given to unknowing CIA agents to determine the drug's effects on unsuspecting people. One record states that an agent was kept on LSD for 77 days.
ARTICHOKE researched the potential of dengue fever and other diseases. A declassified ARTICHOKE memo read: "Not all viruses have to be lethal… the objective includes those that act as short-term and long-term incapacitating agents."
The CIA disputed which department would take over the operation. Finally, it was decided that an agent from the CIA research staff, former U.S. Army brigadier general Paul F. Gaynor, would oversee it. The CIA sought to establish control over what it perceived as the "weaker" and "less intelligent" segments of society, or for potential agents, defectors, refugees, POWs and others. A CIA report states that if hypnosis succeeded, assassins could be created to assassinate "a prominent [redacted] politician or if necessary, [an] American official." The overseas operations took place in locations throughout Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia and the Philippines. Teams were assembled to manage these operations and they were told to "conduct at the overseas bases operational experiments utilizing aliens as subjects."
|Unethical human experimentation
in the United States
Numerous experiments which are performed on human test subjects in the United States are considered unethical, because they are illegally performed or they are performed without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects. Such tests have been performed throughout American history, but some of them are ongoing. The experiments include the exposure of humans to many chemical and biological weapons (including infections with deadly or debilitating diseases), human radiation experiments, injections of toxic and radioactive chemicals, surgical experiments, interrogation and torture experiments, tests which involve mind-altering substances, and a wide variety of other experiments. Many of these tests are performed on children, the sick, and mentally disabled individuals, often under the guise of "medical treatment". In many of the studies, a large portion of the subjects were poor, racial minorities, or prisoners.
Many of these experiments violated US law. Some others were sponsored by government agencies or rogue elements thereof, including the Centers for Disease Control, the United States military, and the Central Intelligence Agency, or they were sponsored by private corporations which were involved in military activities. The human research programs were usually highly secretive and performed without the knowledge or authorization of Congress, and in many cases information about them was not released until many years after the studies had been performed.
The ethical, professional, and legal implications of this in the United States medical and scientific community were quite significant, and led to many institutions and policies that attempted to ensure that future human subject research in the United States would be ethical and legal. Public outrage in the late 20th century over the discovery of government experiments on human subjects led to numerous congressional investigations and hearings, including the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission, both of 1975, and the 1994 Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, among others.
In 1953, the CIA placed several of its interrogation and mind-control programs under the direction of a single program, known by the code name MKULTRA, after CIA director Allen Dulles complained about not having enough "human guinea pigs to try these extraordinary techniques". The MKULTRA project was under the direct command of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb of the Technical Services Division. The project received over $25 million, and involved hundreds of experiments on human subjects at eighty different institutions.
In a memo describing the purpose of one MKULTRA program subprogram, Richard Helms said:
We intend to investigate the development of a chemical material which causes a reversible, nontoxic aberrant mental state, the specific nature of which can be reasonably well predicted for each individual. This material could potentially aid in discrediting individuals, eliciting information, and implanting suggestions and other forms of mental control.
— Richard Helms, internal CIA memo
In 1954, the CIA's Project QKHILLTOP was created to study Chinese brainwashing techniques, and to develop effective methods of interrogation. Most of the early studies are believed to have been performed by the Cornell University Medical School's human ecology study programs, under the direction of Dr. Harold Wolff. Wolff requested that the CIA provide him any information they could find regarding "threats, coercion, imprisonment, deprivation, humiliation, torture, 'brainwashing', 'black psychiatry', and hypnosis, or any combination of these, with or without chemical agents." According to Wolff, the research team would then:
...assemble, collate, analyze and assimilate this information and will then undertake experimental investigations designed to develop new techniques of offensive/defensive intelligence use ... Potentially useful secret drugs (and various brain damaging procedures) will be similarly tested to ascertain the fundamental effect upon human brain function and upon the subject's mood ... Where any of the studies involve potential harm of the subject, we expect the Agency to make available suitable subjects and a proper place for the performance of the necessary experiments.
— Dr. Harold Wolff, Cornell University Medical School
Another of the MKULTRA subprojects, Operation Midnight Climax, consisted of a web of CIA-run safehouses in San Francisco, Marin, and New York which were established to study the effects of LSD on unconsenting individuals. Prostitutes on the CIA payroll were instructed to lure clients back to the safehouses, where they were surreptitiously plied with a wide range of substances, including LSD, and monitored behind one-way glass. Several significant operational techniques were developed in this theater, including extensive research into sexual blackmail, surveillance technology, and the possible use of mind-altering drugs in field operations.
In 1957, with funding from a CIA front organization, Donald Ewen Cameron of the Allan Memorial Institute in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, began MKULTRA Subproject 68.His experiments were designed to first "depattern" individuals, erasing their minds and memories—reducing them to the mental level of an infant—and then to "rebuild" their personality in a manner of his choosing. To achieve this, Cameron placed patients under his "care" into drug-induced comas for up to 88 days, and applied numerous high voltage electric shocks to them over the course of weeks or months, often administering up to 360 shocks per person. He would then perform what he called "psychic driving" experiments on the subjects, where he would repetitively play recorded statements, such as "You are a good wife and mother and people enjoy your company", through speakers he had implanted into blacked-out football helmets that he bound to the heads of the test subjects (for sensory deprivation purposes). The patients could do nothing but listen to these messages, played for 16–20 hours a day, for weeks at a time. In one case, Cameron forced a person to listen to a message non-stop for 101 days. Using CIA funding, Cameron converted the horse stables behind Allan Memorial into an elaborate isolation and sensory deprivation chamber where he kept patients locked in for weeks at a time. Cameron also induced insulin comas in his subjects by giving them large injections of insulin, twice a day, for up to two months at a time.
The CIA leadership had serious concerns about these activities, as evidenced in a 1957 Inspector General Report, which stated:
Precautions must be taken not only to protect operations from exposure to enemy forces but also to conceal these activities from the American public in general. The knowledge that the agency is engaging in unethical and illicit activities would have serious repercussions in political and diplomatic circles ...
— 1957 CIA Inspector General Report
In 1963, the CIA had synthesized many of the findings from its psychological research into what became known as the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation handbook, which cited the MKULTRA studies and other secret research programs as the scientific basis for their interrogation methods. Cameron regularly traveled around the U.S. teaching military personnel about his techniques (hooding of prisoners for sensory deprivation, prolonged isolation, humiliation, etc.), and how they could be used in interrogations. Latin American paramilitary groups working for the CIA and U.S. military received training in these psychological techniques at places such as the School of the Americas. In the 21st century, many of the torture techniques developed in the MKULTRA studies and other programs were used at U.S. military and CIA prisons such as Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib. In the aftermath of the Congressional hearings, major news media mainly focused on sensationalistic stories related to LSD, "mind-control", and "brainwashing", and rarely used the word "torture". This suggested that the CIA researchers were, as one author put it, "a bunch of bumbling sci-fi buffoons", rather than a rational group of men who had run torture laboratories and medical experiments in major U.S. universities; they had arranged for torture, rape and psychological abuse of adults and young children, driving many of them permanently insane.
MKULTRA activities continued until 1973 when CIA director Richard Helms, fearing that they would be exposed to the public, ordered the project terminated, and all of the files destroyed. But, a clerical error had sent many of the documents to the wrong office, so when CIA workers were destroying the files, some of them remained. They were later released under a Freedom of Information Act request by investigative journalist John Marks. Many people in the American public were outraged when they learned of the experiments, and several congressional investigations took place, including the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission.
On April 26, 1976, the Church Committee of the United States Senate issued a report, Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operation with Respect to Intelligence Activities, In Book I, Chapter XVII, p. 389, this report states:
LSD was one of the materials tested in the MKULTRA program. The final phase of LSD testing involved surreptitious administration to unwitting non-volunteer subjects in normal life settings by undercover officers of the Bureau of Narcotics acting for the CIA.
A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKULTRA materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions. Because MKULTRA records were destroyed, it is impossible to reconstruct the operational use of MKULTRA materials by the CIA overseas; it has been determined that the use of these materials abroad began in 1953, and possibly as early as 1950.
Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKULTRA/MKDELTA materials were also used for harassment, discrediting, or disabling purposes.
|MKNAOMI was the code name for a
joint Department of Defense/CIA research program lasting from the 1950s
through the 1970s. Unclassified information about the MKNAOMI program
and the related Special Operations Division is scarce. It is generally
reported to be a successor to the MKULTRA project focusing on
biological projects including biological warfare agents—specifically,
to store materials that could either incapacitate or kill a test
subject and to develop devices for the diffusion of such materials.
During its first twenty years, the CIA engaged in projects designed to increase U.S. biological and chemical warfare capabilities. Project MKNAOMI was initiated to provide the CIA with a covert support base (where?) to meet its top-secret operational requirements. The goal was to have a robust arsenal of lethal and incapacitating materials within the CIA's Technical Services Division (TSD). This would enable the TSD to serve as a center for supplying biological and chemical materials.
Surveillance, testing, upgrading and the evaluation of special materials and items were provided by MKNAOMI to ensure that no defects or unwanted contingencies emerged during operational conditions. The U.S. Army's Special Operations Command (SOC) was assigned to assist the CIA with development, testing and maintenance procedures for the biological agents and delivery systems (1952) (SOC WASNT CREATED UNTIL 1980’s). Both the CIA and SOC modified guns to fire special darts coated with biological agents and poisonous pills. The darts could incapacitate guard dogs, allowing agents to infiltrate the area that the dogs were guarding, and would then be used to awaken the dogs upon exiting the facility. In addition, the SOC was designated to research the potential to use biological agents against other animals and crops.
A 1967 CIA memo which was uncovered by the Church Committee contained evidence of at least three covert techniques for attacking and poisoning crops that had been tested under field conditions. On November 25, 1969, President Richard Nixon banned any military use of biological weapons and Project MKNAOMI was dissolved. On February 14, 1970, a presidential order outlawed all stockpiles of bacteriological weapons and nonliving toxins. However, despite the presidential order, a CIA scientist was able to acquire an estimated 11 grams of deadly shellfish toxin from SOC personnel at Fort Detrick. The toxin was stored in a CIA laboratory where it remained undetected for over five years.
|Project MKOFTEN was a covert
U.S. Department of Defense program developed in conjunction with the
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) sometime in the late 1960s. A partner
or descendant program of MKSEARCH, the goal of MKOFTEN was to "test the
behavioral and toxicological effects of certain drugs on animals and
humans". Testing of these drugs was done on animals, prisoners at
Holmesburg Prison in Philadelphia, and military personnel at Edgewood
|Project CHATTER was a United
States Navy program beginning in the fall of 1947 focusing on the
identification and testing of drugs in interrogations and the
recruitment of agents. Their search included laboratory experiments on
both animal and human subjects. The program operated under the
direction of Charles Savage of the Naval Medical Research Institute,
Bethesda, Maryland, from 1947 to 1953. The project was geared to
identifying agents both synthetic and natural that were effective
during interrogation. The project was centered on, but not restricted
to, the use of anabasine (an alkaloid), scopolamine and mescaline. The
program ended shortly after the Korean War in 1953.
|Stargate Project was a secret
U.S. Army unit established in 1978 at Fort Meade, Maryland, by the
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and SRI International (a California
contractor) to investigate the potential for psychic phenomena in
military and domestic intelligence applications. The Project, and its
precursors and sister projects, originally went by various code names –
'Gondola Wish', 'Stargate', 'Grill Flame', 'Center Lane', 'Project CF',
'Sun Streak', 'Scangate' – until 1991 when they were consolidated
and rechristened as "Stargate Project".
Stargate Project's work primarily involved remote viewing, the purported ability to psychically "see" events, sites, or information from a great distance. The project was overseen until 1987 by Lt. Frederick Holmes "Skip" Atwater, an aide and "psychic headhunter" to Maj. Gen. Albert Stubblebine, and later president of the Monroe Institute. The unit was small scale, comprising about 15 to 20 individuals, and was run out of "an old, leaky wooden barracks".
The Stargate Project was terminated and declassified in 1995 after a CIA report concluded that it was never useful in any intelligence operation. Information provided by the program was vague and included irrelevant and erroneous data, and there were suspicions of inter-judge reliability. The program was featured in the 2004 book and 2009 film, both titled The Men Who Stare at Goats, although neither mentions it by name.
Юэн Камерон (англ. Donald Ewen Cameron) (24 декабря 1901,
Бридж-оф-Аллан, Шотландия — 8 сентября 1967, Лейк-Плэсид, США) —
американский психиатр. Родился в Бридж-оф-Аллан и в 1924 году окончил
Жизнь и творчество
Жил и работал в Олбани, штат Нью-Йорк, принимал участие в проводимых в Канаде экспериментах по разработанному ЦРУ в Соединенных Штатах проекту «МК-Ультра» — программе по целенаправленному управлению сознанием, результатом которой в конечном счете стала публикация руководства по допросу для контрразведки KUBARK.
Камерон был автором концепции психического управления, к которой проявило особый интерес ЦРУ. В ней он изложил свою теорию по коррекции помешательства, заключающуюся в стирании имеющейся памяти и полной переделке личности. Начав работать на ЦРУ, каждую неделю он ездил на работу в Монреаль, в Аллан Мемориал Институт Университета Макгилла. С 1957 по 1964 год для проведения экспериментов по проекту «МК-Ультра» ему было выделено 69 тысяч долларов. ЦРУ, вероятно, дало ему возможность проводить смертельно опасные эксперименты по той причине, что они должны были ставиться на людях, не являющихся гражданами США. Однако из документов, появившихся в 1977 году, выяснилось, что в течение этого периода времени через них прошло тысячи невольных, а также добровольных участников, включая граждан Соединенных Штатов.
Наряду с экспериментами с ЛСД Камерон также проводил эксперименты с различными веществами нервно-паралитического действия и электросудорожной терапией, электрический разряд при которой превышал терапевтический в 30—40 раз. Его эксперименты по «управлению» заключались в том, что участников непрерывно в течение нескольких месяцев (в одном случае до трех месяцев) вводили медикаментозными средствами в коматозное состояние и при этом заставляли прослушивать записанные на магнитофонную ленту и многократно воспроизводимые звуки или простые повторяющиеся команды. Эксперименты обычно проводились на людях, обратившихся в институт с незначительными проблемами, такими как неврозы тревоги или послеродовая депрессия. Многим из них эти эксперименты постоянно приносили страдания. Работы Камерона в данной области получили начало и шли параллельно с работами английского психиатра д-ра Уильяма Сарджанта, который проводил фактически те же эксперименты в клинике Св. Фомы в Лондоне и белмонтской клинике в Сарее, также без получения согласия пациентов.
Именно в это время Камерон приобрел мировую известность, занимая пост второго президента Всемирной психиатрической ассоциации, а также президента Канадской и Американской психиатрической ассоциации. Десятью годами ранее он также являлся членом Нюрнбергского процесса над врачами, где выдвигал немецким врачам обвинение в преступлениях, которые сам совершал в период с 1934 по 1960 год и позднее, несмотря на то, что его научно-исследовательская работа, выполняемая по заказу Управления стратегических служб во время Второй мировой войны, никогда не являлась засекреченной.